1. The characteristics features of a cell are controlled by its genes.
2. To prevent resources being wasted, some genes can be switched on and off as required.
3. The lac operon (Jabob-Monod) hypothesis states that a structural gene remains switched off while its operator gene is combined with a repressor from a regulator gene. The structural gene becomes switched on and codes for its protein when an inducer prevents the repressor combining with the operator gene.
4. All chemical processes that occur in a living organism are known…