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  • Created by: haz98
  • Created on: 05-04-14 11:48


What are They?

They are organisms that live in extreme conditions. For example;

  • Where it is very hot
  • where it is very cold
  • In very salty water
  • in very acidic/ alkaline water.
  • where there is high pressure
  • where itis very dry.

How do they survive.

They survive by having special adaptations. For example micro-organisms which survive in hot springs in water that can be as how as 94 degrees C have special enzymes to control there metabolism. These enzymes are not destroyed by high temperatures, unlike human enzymes.

What kinds of organisms are they?

The majority of extremophiles are micro-organisms, but there are many other species which are also able to survive extreme conditions.

Polution Indicators

What are pollution indicators.

These are organisms which are very sensitive to pollution and are easily killed by it.

Therefore is an idicator indicator organism is presented in a habitat this shows that the habitat is pollution free.

In a polluted habitat the indicator organism will begin to die off or may be absent altogether.

Examples of indicators organisms:

For air pollution:  lichens

For freshwater pollution: Certain invertebrate species like mayfly nymphs.

Therefore the presence or absence of these organisms can indicate whether or not a habitat is polluted.


The term "biodiversity" refers to the variety of plants and animals which live in a particular habitat.

A healthy habitat should have a wide biodiversity. Polution makes it difficult for many animals and plants to survive so many species will die out in a polluted habitat.

How can the enviroment affect the distirbutions 

Changes in climate can effect things like some plants may not beable to survive and would die out. This would affect the ecosystem because there wouldnt be a complete food chain and would then kill animals can could lead to extinction.

In the Arctic region the melting of the ice caps is making it harderfor polar bears which usually swim from one flow to another. In the future the polar bears might needed to retreat to the main land because there is no more ice to stay on.

In the past migration for birds was a way of avoiding the harsh winters and food sortages in the north regions. Asthe region warms will the still need to migrate.

Hibernation too is a behavioural adaptation for surviving harsh winters. will warmer climates mean animals do not need to hibernate anymore?

What is competition.

Competition is when animals or plants fight for things needed for survival.

A successful competitor is one which wins the fight and gets everything it needs to survive and reproduce.

What types of comptition are there

  • Intraspecific - this is when individuals of the same species compete with each other

Interspecific - this is when individuals of different species compete with eachother.

 Avoiding competition - Often the best policy is to avoid competing with other living things.

Interspecific competition can be avoided in animals is those which share a food source feed in different ways.



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