Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory

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Achievement Motivation

The acheivement motivation thoery is based on he level of competitivenss that a person has. There are two types of personality:

High NACH- This is where a person has a personality that has a high need for achievment, meaning that they will take on cahllenges that are given to them (approach behaviour) and then be determined to complete them and will take risks to get there.

They see failure as a learning curve to success and put it down to external factors. They place success down to internal factors and aspire for mastery orientation.

High Naf- This is a high need to avoid failure and means that the performer will often shy away from challenges, and once they have failed they will place it down to internal factors (learned helplesness) and not try again.

They have a avoidance behaviour and decline any risk.

They also place success down to external factors.

Incentive value: The pleasure gained from success, this is higher when the chance of success is lower.

Ego goal orientation- The outcome/product goal, preffered by non-athletes.

Task goal orientation- The performance/performance goal, preffered by athletes.

Attribution Theory

Mastery Orientation- The strong will to succeed. High persistence.

Stability factors:

Stable- Task difficulty, Ability

Unstable- Effort, Luck

Locus of causality:

Internal- Ability, effort

External- Task Difficulty, Luck

A coach should mainly attribute failure to external factors in order to raise the self esteem of the perfomer, and success should be attributed to internal factors in order to raise self efficacy.

Failure is seen as a temporary set back by people with high NACH personalities, as they believe that it is always down to external factors. This also helps increase effort as they will always believe that they can succeed. This is called self serving bias and will encourage a physically active lifestyle.

Learned helplesness is where a performer constantly fails and places failure down to lack of ability, believing that no matter what, they will not be able to succeed. This can lead to dropping out of the sport.

Attribution Retraining

A coach should tell a performer with learned…


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