- Developing societies - subsistance poverty meaning that the poor lack necessities like food and clean water
- A type of measurement of poverty - used in early days of research where sociologists attempted the income of each household
- 'Father of modern poverty studies'
- 1889-1903 - street-by-street survey of East and Inner London - calculated numerical extent of poverty
- Concluded that 31% of people in the districts were living in poverty
- First researcher to apply an absolute approach to the study of poverty
- Created the…