Abnormal effect

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Abnormal effect


Unipolar: Major depression. Symptoms include: diminshed pleasure, weight loss, insominia, fatigue and feelings of worthlessness.

Bipolar: Manic depression. Symptoms include: a change in polarity of behaviour betweeen mania and depression. Manic behvaiour that can not be acccounted for by a physical condition.

Causes for manic depression: Biomedical: Abnormal brain structures, decreased grey matter in the left thalmus and left hippocampus. 

Genetic: A defect in the x chromosome, case study from a suffer of bipolar and musclar dystrophy (muscualr dystophy is transmitted by the x chromosome hence the link)

Treatments for Bipolar: Drug treatment, lituim has been found to be effective for manic but not depressive (Malhi). Olzapine and a placebo, greater improvement in the olzapine group.

Sex differeneces 

4.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with depression.Possible explanations for this: Males may be less likely to come forward about suffering with depression. Women have more hormonal change i.e menstrual cycle and pregnacy.


Genetic: Mc Guffin: 46% concordance rates for MZ twins.  A specific gene that predisposes the development of depression.

Biomedical: Adrenaline and serotin low


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