Xenophobia and football violence
Daly and Wilson:
People are more altruistic towards people in their own group than outsiders.
Shaw and Wong:
Mechanisms that prompt suspicion towards outsiders have been favoured by Natural Selection as they would have been able to avoid attack and pass on their genes.
It is an adaptive response to exaggerate negative stereotypes towards strangers as over perception is less costly than under perception.
Evans and Rowe:
They analysed data relating to 40 football matches played in 1999/2000. All games were played in Europe both English club sides and English National side. They looked at post match reports and police interviews. They found that there was more aggression in National football games than club sides. This is may be because club sides are more ethnically diverse, so it's likely.
Evaluation of Xenophobia
Supports the link between xenophobia and group displays among Hungarian football crowds. He found that racist misconduct of core extremist supports led to an increase of spectator violence in general and xenophobic response in particular.
Football aggression - Actually highly organised and ritualised. Being football hooligans enables young people to achieve a sense of personal growth and identify in the eyes of their peers. Group displays of aggression, are therefore, according to Marsh, an indication of underlying tendencies, but part of an alternative 'career structure' for working people.
He argues that in human history, the adaptive advantages of groups living was the benefits that individuals gained through co operating with each other. By engaging in painful rituals an individual is signalling their commitment to the group. A committed…