Haydn worked for one family for much of his life, and so was isolated in their family palace, which meant he was forced to become individual in his style. ‘Lamentation’ is the name of a plainsong which is used in this movement of his symphony.
Small orchestra, uses 2 oboes, 1 bassoon, 2 horns, strings and cembalo (harpsichord). Violins have most of the melodic interest, which is often doubled by the oboes. The 2nd violins often double the firsts, and violas/bassoon double the cellos, making the texture thinner. The horns used were natural horns (no valves) so in the first section of the music they provide harmonic filling as they can’t play some notes- but a key change towards the end allows them to play more of the melody.