A2 - Psychology - Ways of dealing with ethical issues with human participants

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Ways of dealing with ethical issues with human participants 

Definition: Both historically and in modern research, ethical issues have arisen and been dealt with, well or badly. There are many examples in psychology that illustrate the ways used.

Debriefing 

Definition: Once a study is completed, participants should be informed of the true aims of the study, offered the opportunity to discuss any concerns they may have and be given the opportuity to withdraw their data from the study -  to compensate for the lack of opportunity for informed consent.

Issues: Debriefing can't turn back the clock - a participant may still fell embarrassed or have lowered self-esteem.

Example: Asch

Presumptive consent

Definition: Presumptive consent is a method of dealing with lack of inforrmed consent or deception, by asking a group of people who are aimilar to the prospective participants in a study whether they would agree to take part in the study. If this group of people consent to the procedures in the proposed study, it is presumed that the real participants would agree as well.

Issues: In a sense Milgram (1963) sought presumptive consent when he surveyed 14 Yale Psychology students before his study took place. The fact they estimated that almost no one would go beyond 450 volts suggested that there was no potential for psychological harm and therefore participants would be 'happy' to take part.

Example: Milgram

Anticipation

Definition: Anticipation is a method which can help stop and prevent harm within a study, this will involve the reserach anticipating how much harm their would be in a study, as their shouldn't be greater than in everyday day life. After this the reserach can use role paly, questionnaires to help deal

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