- Created by: kpaul1234
- Created on: 18-05-21 19:00
How do cells obtain energy from glucose?
- Cells obtain *energy from glucose by the chemical process of oxidation, which is carried out through a series of metabolic pathways.
- five principles that govern metabolic pathways:
- A complex chemical transformation occurs in a series of separate reactions that form a metabolic pathway.
- Each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.
- Many metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms, from bacteria to humans.
- In eukaryotes, many metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain reactions occurring inside specific organelles, or even specific regions of an organelle.
- Some key enzymes in each metabolic pathway can be inhibited or activated to alter the rate of the pathway.
- If glucose is burned in a flame or is in a typical cell, it reacts with oxygen gas (O2), forming carbon dioxide and water and releasing energy in the form of heat.
The balanced equation for the complete reaction is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + free energy (ΔG = –686 kcal/mol)
- This is an oxidation–reduction reaction (more on this shortly), in which glucose loses electrons (becomes oxidized) and oxygen gains them (becomes reduced).
The large standard free energy change (ΔG) is negative, indicating that the overall conversion is highly exergonic and can drive the endergonic formation of a lot of…