9.Pathways That Help Harvest Chemical Energy

  • Created by: kpaul1234
  • Created on: 18-05-21 19:00


  • How do cells obtain energy from glucose?

    • Cells obtain *energy from glucose by the chemical process of oxidation, which is carried out through a series of metabolic pathways.
    • five principles that govern metabolic pathways:
      • A complex chemical transformation occurs in a series of separate reactions that form a metabolic pathway.
      • Each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.
      • Many metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms, from bacteria to humans.
      • In eukaryotes, many metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain reactions occurring inside specific organelles, or even specific regions of an organelle.
      • Some key enzymes in each metabolic pathway can be inhibited or activated to alter the rate of the pathway.
    • If glucose is burned in a flame or is in a typical cell, it reacts with oxygen gas (O2), forming carbon dioxide and water and releasing energy in the form of heat.
    •  The balanced equation for the complete reaction is

      C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + free energy (ΔG = –686 kcal/mol)

    • This is an oxidation–reduction reaction (more on this shortly), in which glucose loses electrons (becomes oxidized) and oxygen gains them (becomes reduced).
    • The large standard free energy change (ΔG) is negative, indicating that the overall conversion is highly exergonic and can drive the endergonic formation of a lot of…


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