Aims of the Project:
- A genome is all the DNA in an organism, including its genes.
- Genes carry the information for making all the protein required by an organism.
- These proteins determine, amongst other things, the appearance of an organism, how it fights infection and perhaps even how it behaves.
- The main aims of the project are:
- Determine the sequence of the four bases, A, T, G and C through all the human DNA.
- Identify all the genes formed by the bases/
- Find the location of the genes on the 23 human chromosomes.
- Store all this information on databases.
- Consider all the ethical, social and legal issues which arise from obtaining information about the human genome.
Beneficial Applications of the Project:
- One of the main benefits is that the information enables scientists to known exactly which sections of the DNA, on which chromosomes, are responsible for the many different inherited diseases.
- For some types of gene tests researchers design short pieces of DNA called probes, the sequence of which are complimentary to the mutated sequences.
- These probes will seek out their compliment among the 3 million base pairs of an individual's genome.
- If the mutation is present, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation.
- Another DNA test involves comparing the sequence of DNA in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene.
- Cost of testing can be very expensive and depends on the size of the genes are the number of mutations being testing for.
Main Uses of Genetic Testing:
- Carrier screening, which involves checking for a recessive gene.
- Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.
- Pre-natal diagnostic testing.
- Newborn baby screening.
- Pre-symptomatic testing for predicting adult onset disorders, for example, huntington's disease.
- Pre-symptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult onset diseases, for example, Alzheimer's.
- Confirmation that…
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