4. Biological Molecules

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Notes on Biological Molecules:

  • Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (and sometimes sulphur)

Large molecules are made from smaller molecules

  • Starch and glycogen are made from glucose
  • Cellulose is made from glucose
  • Proteins are made from amino acids
  • Fats and oils are made from fatty acids and glycerol

You can test for the presence of these molecules

  • Iodine solution tests for starch (brown to dark blue)
  • Benedict’s solution tests for reducing sugars (blue to red through a spectrum based on how much is present i.e. blue indicates none, green a trace, yellow a low amount, orange a moderate amount and red a…


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