2.2.3- Carbohydrates


What are carbohydrates made from?

Most are polymers but they are all made up of the 3 same chemical elements- carbon (c), hydrogen (h) and oxygen (o)- CnH2nO

The monomers that make up the carbohydrates are called monosaccarides.

e.g. Glucose and Ribose

Glucose- a monosaccaride with 6 carbon atoms, meaning its a hexose-monosaccaride. There are 2 forms of gluscose- alpha and beta

Its structure is related to its function as the main source of energy in plants and animals. It's structure makes it soluable, so is easily transported . It's chemical bonds contain lots of energy.

Ribose- a monosaccaride with 5 carbon atoms, so its a pentose monosaccharide. Ribose is the sugar component of RNA nuleotides.

Polysaccharide Formation-

Monosaccharides are joined together by glycosicic bonds. During synthesis, a hydrogen atom from one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl (OH) group on another, relasing a water molecule- A CONDENSATION REACTION. The reverse of this is a HYDROLYSIS


No comments have yet been made