2.1.3 - Carbohydrates

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Most carbohydrates are large, complex molecules made up of long chains of monosaccharides, e.g. starch is made up of long chains of glucose. Single monosaccharides are also called carbohydrates though. Glucose is a monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms in each molecule. Two types of glucose- alpha and beta. In alpha glucose, the OH group is found below the plane of the molecule. In beta glucose, the OH group is found above the plane of the molecule.Glucose' structure relates to its function. It is soluble, and its chemical bonds contain large amounts of energy. 

Monosaccharides join together to form disaccharides and polysaccharides 

  • Monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds
  • During the synthesis, a hydrogen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl (OH) group on the other, releasing a molecule of water. This is a condensation reaction. Reverse of this reaction is hydrolysis. A molecule of water reacts with the glycosidic bond, breaking it apart. Disaccharide is formed when two monosaccharides form together. E.g. 2 alpha glucose join together to form maltose by a glycosidic bond. Polysaccharide is formed when more than 2


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