2.1.2 Biochemicals and bonds

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Carbon Chains and Rings:

Because carbon has four electrons in its outer shell it can gain stability by sharing four electrons with other atoms = in a covalent bond, this forms a molecule. So Carbon is able to make 4 covalent bonds either with another carbon or with atoms of other types.

Carbon can form a vast variety of molecules by bonding with other atoms and by forming chains or rings of carbon atoms with other atoms bonded to the chain.

Double bonds can also occur for examples C=C bonds in hydrocarbons and C=O bonds in many molecules including organic acids.

Monomers and Polymers:

Biological monomers are grouped according to their chemical properties.  Most important biological monomers are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid.

Monomer refers to single, small molecule, many of which can be joined together to form a polymer.  Lipids are not polymers because the smaller molecules are


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