2. Stable and Unstable Nuclei

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  • Created by: COldnall
  • Created on: 19-05-16 20:04

There's 4 types of forces:

Electromagnetic, Gravitational, Strong Nuclear and Weak Nuclear

Strong Nuclear:

- Holds everything together in the nucleus

- Repulsive at very short, < 0.5fm

- Attractive from 0.5fm to 3fm

- After that the force falls to zero, whilst the EM force repulsives forever.


- Alpha Decay occurs with very big atoms (with more than 82 protons), it emits an alpha particle, with 2 protons and 2 neutrons.

- Alpha particles have very short ranges, this can be demostrated by the 'cloud chamber' or you can use a 'Geiger counter' to measure the amount of radiation.

- Beta minus decay is the emission of an electron (beta-minus particle) and antineutrino; it occurs when the isotopes are neutron rich and a neutron in the nucleus is turned into a proton. The antineutrino carries away some energy and momentum.

- The neutrino was discovered as the beta-decay didn't work without it due to the conservation of energy rule.

Application Questions:

Q1) Beta-minus decay.

Q2) You would expect beta-minus decay, since


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