1: Genes, transcription and translation

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  • Some genes are found in mitochondria, however most are on chromosomes within the nucleus. 
  • A gene is one part of a DNA molecule, and one molecule of DNA makes up a chromosome.
  • DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
  • Transcription is the first stage in protein synthesis and uses an mRNA molecule.


  • The DNA strand unwinds and unzips one gene at a time
  • Hydrogen bonds between complementary bases break
  • Activated RNA nucleotides bind on the template strand, catalysed by the enzyme RNA polymerase
  • Two extra phosphyl groups are released, releasing energy for bonding nucleotides
  • the mRNA is a…


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