How do policies create Social Class Inequalities ?
For 8 marks here are ways that policies have created social class inequalities.....
(Only include these if they want you to go this far back in time)
- The 1944 Act introudced the Tripartite System which has created some social class inequalties. This was because the social democratic system argue that it is SOCIALLY DIVISIVE. The middle class are most likely to be accepted in grammar schools, were they get BETTER education than working class students. Students were also LABELLED based on the school they went to so w/c were usually labelled as failures- this lowered their self esteem. This shows that tripartie system is criticised for creating SOCIAL CLASS INEQUALITIES.
- The introduction to comprehensives has also brough about some social class inequaltities. Labelling was introduced were some students were labelled positively and 'brighter' than other students. This was usually the middle class, where they were placed in higher streams and sets. The working class were negatively labelled and so placed in lower streams where they underachieved. Social democrats argue that this is the tripartite system UNDER ONE ROOF- social inequalities still existed
More recent policies that create social class ineq
The 1988 Education Reform Act has also brough about social class inequalities...
- Ball et all argued that NOT all parents benefitted equally from the introduction to market forces.
He describes that middle class parents were the SKILLED CHOOSERS so they were able to choose the best possible school for their children since they had the social contacts, money and cultural capital. On the other hand, working-class parents were DISCONNECTED choosers so they ended up choosing lower league schools were students underacheived- inequalities since not everyone has the same equal opportunity to achieve
- Barlett and LeGrand also criticise the introduction to marketisation for bringing about social class inequalities.
They argue that marketization of education has resulted in SUCCESSFUL SCHOOLS in the WEALTHIEST areas to use CREAM-SKIMMING where they only select the most able students from the most affluent backgrounds. They also use 'SILT SHIFTING' where the school offloads WORKING CLASS and DISABLED children because they are more expensive to teach and usually do not get the best grades. This means that they produce poor exam grades and the schools league table position can be brought down. This shows that marketisation has led to inequalities being created.
- Furthermore, the introduction of league tables has created social class inequalities. Ball and Whitty argue that the working class students are usually admitted to lower league, less successful and popular schools whereas the middle class are usually admitted to the successful, high league schools- social class inequalities created.
AO2: However, there are many equalities that have been created to tackle these inequalities...
- Sure Start
- Education Action Zone
- Education Maintenance Allowance
- Expansion of higher education