- Measure Gender via:
- Gender Development index
- Gender Empowerment index
- The UN MDG's focus on women: empower women, maternal health
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Health and Life Expectancy Inequality
- Most Places have women with higher life expectancy- not 3rd world.
- Huge infant mortality, sex selective abourtions based on one child policy.
- Distortion of male/female ratios. 38% more males in some areas. Issues with back room procedures- cause illness.
- Issues with child burth. 99% maternal death in 3rd world. 1% in minorty world.
- Women are murdered due to lack of dowry payments.
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Education and Work Inequality
- Women have low status in education and the workplace
- Education provision tends to exclude women, 960million are illiterate 2/3 are women.
- Women therefore excluded from benifits of human rights.
- Women serve a domestic role.
- When women do gain employment, there are lower wages, fewer safety protection, lack of unions (FTZ's).
- Women work many long hours. However work is not guaranteed.
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Socio-Political involvement Inequality
- Lack of female involvedment in 3rd world politics.
- Women are underrepresented un politics.
- Leghorn and Parker: Three Types of Power:
- Minimal Power: Little 1st hand control, no reporoductive rights.
- Token Power: varied, women are still lower than a men, a bit more say at home, still under represented.
- Negotiating Power: women have their reporductive rights, womens have self sustaining power they have high status and contorl.
- This is true of some traditional societies. Many developed nations are only in the Token Stage, whilt 3rd world countries are more equal.
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Integration Thesis (Liberal Feminist)
- Moen should be encouraged to take employment roles available in the developed world e.g. nursing, secreteries.
- Women rise above the mother label which lowers the birth rate. Induviduals have less babies.
- Education systems and a mass media are needed to spread positve roles for women.
- TNC's must offer female empolyment.
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Marginalisation Thesis (Dependency)
- Patriachy is established by a lack of inclusion. There is a change in the colonial era.
- Traditional societies were more equal. West brought over views of patriarchy.
- Industrialisation brought paid work, meant that women were left at home. Wages should trickle down to women, but often this does not happen.
- Only 3.4% of aid projects are focses soley on women. Many assume women are not into science and technology- so leave them out.
- Aid projects which focus on wells (which women use more than men) are dominantly taught to men.
- There is a disregard for domestic jobs as they are unwaged.
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Exploitation Thesis (Marxist Feminist)
- Gender inequalities occur as capitalism needs women to exploit.
- Capitalism needs patriarchy to sustian for it to function.
- Women provide TNC's as a source of cheap labour- particularly in FTZ's.
- The FTZ's have low wages, with no unions, health and safety protection or contracts.
- Women are useful to TNC's. They therefore encourage contraception to prevent women being off work due to maternity leave.
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- Modernisation Theories:
- Cultural change is important. Education is needed to promite values for women. Encourage TC;s to have progressive employment. Opportunities for women to rise up. Givens them Freedom from husbands.
- Bottom Up Approaches:
- Work with women. 90% of microcredit loans are to female customers. We need to ensure there is legal representation.
- NGO's and IGO's need to have a focus on rising equality.
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- Junhong: Infanticide, sex selective 200/820 abortion. one child policy
- Mosem: 6 countries where men have a longer life expectance
- Mies: Dowry deaths, angry husbands.
- Harrisson: women spend 8 hours working both places
- Leghorn and Parker: types of power: Minimal Power, Token Power and Negotiatiing Power
- Amyarta Sen: types of inequality: special, education, mortality, natatlity, politics, basic needs, ownership, household
- Parson: Traditional society was patriachal- industrailation imprved things for women.
- Illich: traditional society- gender roles were equitable
- Abbot and Wallace: colonialism produced patriachy
- Clarkson et al.: cultures were matriarcha now patriarchal
- Leornard: colonialism left women at home
- Elson and Pearson: intrests of capitalism
- Daisy Franscis: FTZ 85% women- suffering
- Mies: TNC's acta as pimps for women with small hands
- Foster-Carter: women the satellite to noones metropolis
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