World Cities


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% world pop in urban areas of 1955 and 2015

1955 - 31%

2015 - 52%

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Megacity Definition and Number

Definition: Pop excess 10 million

Number: 20 in world, 15 in developing

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UK increases

Pop increase 7% 2021 of 1997 level

Household increase 18% due to lower young pop

71% all households belong to single peopl

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Urbanisation Reasons

- Natural increase

- Low yield over farming in rural - soil erosion

- 18th 19th C - agricultural revolution increased food surplus

- Labour from countryside

- Coal power enabled work at industry instead of next to river

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Urbanisation Effects

- Poor living conditions - over crowding and poverty

- Informationalisation - Fibre optic cable between India + Kenya

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Kibera, Nairobi Shanty Improvement

- 2 million moved from Shanty to new apartments

- Cost 1.2bn

- Rents hard to pay off

- Loss of culture and informal jobs

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Brown Agenda Definition and Components

Definition - The environmental problems faced by countries in developmental process


- Traditional environmental issues such as water

- Contamination, air pollution and noise pollution

International Bodies such as UN:

- Conduct public consultation on issues

- Make government commitments

- Analyse risks, impacts  and cost

- Community leaders and groups established

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Core and Periphery Model

- Developed by Wallerstein

- Two areas of economic activity cannot survive without the other

Core - high level industry relying on investment. The "positives" of globalisation such as healthcare, medicine and education included

Periphery - low end of the spectrum, less technology required, usually collecting and manipulating low value materials. Usually in LEDCS

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Suburbanisation in UK 30s to 70s

- Public transport such as Tube as well as private car use.

- Railway lines and arterial roads

- 1930s few planning controls

- 1940s greenbelts introduced

- 1950s suburbs well controlled

- 1960s council houses on fringes

- 1970s privately owned homes built on estates as restrictions loosened

- Now 1000s homes on greenbelt planned. 30 sites across UK perhaps creating urban sprawl between Nottingham and Derby

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Reduce Suburbanisation

- Encourage downsizing or utilise empty homes or council houses

- Encourage development of brownfield - many reluctant due to costs such as pollution clearance and demolition

- Improvement of infrastructure as it is over capacity

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Counter-urbanisation - UK figures and causes

- UK 1991-2001 rural pop increased 6%. Metropolitan areas down 2%

- Demand for second homes

- Commuting

- Decline in agriculture means selling of unwanted land and conversion of barns

- Keep local services open

- Though out-migration of young people

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Urban Decline Reasons and Impact/

- Developers and builders try to hit certain markets causing segregation

- Changing needs - Victorian houses now not big enough for average family

- Immigrants find it hard to get jobs

- 35% loss of UK conurbation pop between 1950 and 1980. 25% decline in Manchester and Liverpool in the 70s alone

- Investment move to rural areas

- 1995 employment rates in inner city areas 50% lower than everywhere else

- 1960 and 1981 1.6 million manufacturing jobs lost - 75% of all loses.

- Service industries great due to footloose contracts

- Young, skilled people leave

- 19th century homes replaced by horrific estates and high rise flats in 60s-70s

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Improvement Initiaves of 80s +

- UDCs (Urban Development Corporations) - Docklands 1981 flagship. 11 sites by 1993. Local needs were not taken into consideration. Rely most on government lead and private investment. Thames Gateway total investment £16 billion creating 35,000 homes and 190,000 jobs but lost money

- SGBs (Single Generation Budgets) - Introduced 1997 to improve housing. Applied for by local councils giving locals a bigger say

- EZs (Enterprise Zones) 1981 - stimulate growth in areas of high unemployment

- Inner City Task Force 1987 - brought training opportunities and 50,000 jobs

- Sports led regeneration

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Regeneration in Lagos, Nigeria

- High rise apartment blocks constructed

- Site and service scheme - rents paid for individual housing plots with water, sanitation and roads provided. The house is constructed themselves

- Self help schemes - given bricks and breeze blocks for housing improvement. Encouraged to build community infrastructure under regulations

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Retailing Change

- Traditional - local daily basis bought goods. Travel for higher value goods. Changed due to transport in last 30 years

- Supermarkets now in residential areas and small towns with full range. Now "weekly family shop"

- 1980s - retail parks of DIY, carpets and furniture on outskirts

- 1990s - accessible out-of-town shopping centres

- 21st C - e-commerce and next day delivery

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Reason for retail change

- Free car parking out of town - inner city opposite

- More accessible

- Petrol stations are like corner shop to many

- Freezers - food bought in bulk or advance such as ready meals

- Shopping as social activity

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PVLI definition and problems faced in CBD

PVLI definition - Peak Land Value Intersection - highest ranked, busiest, most accessible part of the CBD. Not static and there are zones of assimilation and discard.


- Out-of-town shopping centres

- Office emphasis,  now moving to suburbs

- Cost of development and upkeep of CBD escalating

- Negative multiplier

- Congestion and inaccessibility

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Core and Frame Model Features

- Shows urban structure of CBD

- Where land is most expensive

- Functions of zones

- Lowest land values usually outer areas

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CBD strategies

- Destination experience

- Special events and friendly shopping

- All weather malls and low cost parking

- Specialised quarters and increased function

- Conservation of historic buildings

- Improve transport links

- Reduced crime

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Attitude to out of town shopping

- Threatens safety, causing pollution and noise in residential areas

- Continuous flow of cars and deliveries

- Traffic in Trafford centre and build up on M60

- No independent stores

- Public transport inefficient - 85% came by car in 2004. Buses finish the metrolink line

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Waste Management Hierarchy

- Landfill - clay and plastic can stop contamination. Government want to reduce 75%

- Incineration

- Physical reprocessing - hard for multi material items

- Biological reprocessing - compost

- Energy Recovery

- Energy reduction

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UK transport issues

- Olympic congestion as pop double for 1 month. Reduce traffic by 60%

- Cross Rail north and south London

- Increased car ownership - 30% own two or more cars due to higher incomes

- Public transport capacity exceeded

- Suburb - suburb easier done by car. Car travel is still more convenient

- Increase in service and freight traffic

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Improvement Schemes

- M25 round London caused more congestion

- Congestion charges - London 2003-2007 Manchester 2008

- Bus lanes and car priority

-6,000 bikes in London

- Speed bumps, rising bollards, restricted access and pedestrianisation

- Bypass A65 Skipton

- Streamline public transport Mersey. 1/3 pop live within 1km of merseyrail station

- Low cost public transport - super-tram sheffield

- Expensive car parks - though could decrease vistors

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