World Englishes


Kachru's Circle Model

Inner circle- English as it originally took shape and spread across the world in the first diaspora. Inner circle represents bases of English where it is now used as a primary language e.g the UK, the US, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Canada, South africa and some of the Caribbean.Total number of English speakers in the inner circle is about 380 million.

Outer circle- Second diaspora of English which spread the language through Asia and Africa. English is not the native language but serves as a useful lingua franca between ethnic groups. Circle includes India, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa and the Phillipines. Total number in the circle iss estimated between 150 million and 300 million. 

Expanding circle- Countries which use English as a medium of international communication. Much of the rest of the world's population included in this such as China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, Egypt and Indonesia. Total is hard to estimate but could be from 100 million to one billion.

Inner circle is norm providing, the outer circle is norm developing and the expanding circle is norm dependent.

1 of 1


No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language variation and discourses resources »