WORLD ENGLISHES

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World English - different worldwide varieties

Lingua franca - common system between speakers of different languages

Global English - just one unified form of English where there are clearly many

Internation English - describes all mentioned above

Facts:

7 million in 1600

2 billion acorss 75 countries - present day

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David Crystal

400 million L1 speakers

600 Million l2 speakers

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Models

Kachru:

  • concentric circles
  • are native speakers at the heart of language?
  • 'inclusivity' of inner circles

Schneider:

  • considers post-colonial varieties of English and evolving of language
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Language differences

Phonology:

  • Hong Kong - /r/ and /l/ - e.g. row and low
  • stress-timed or stress based

Vocabulary:

  • Hindi English adds suffixes e.g. filmi
  • Australian 'thong' is a flip-flop e.g. semantic differences

Grammar:

  • not marking plural e.g. she has two shoe
  • using present progressive e.g. she was good I am thinking
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Attitudes to International English

  • Crystal - momentum of growth is so great there is nothing likely to stop its continued spread as a lingua franca
  • Graddol - curren global wave may lose momentum
  • McArthur - such radical change is is fragmenting into a family of languages
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