World English Theorists


Robert McCrum and Robert Philipson


Argues that the spread of global English is both inevitable and useful. 


Argues that the spread of global English is linguistic imperialism, and is killing other languages and cultures.

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David Crystal

Agress that language death is a tragedy but hope in new technology. 

- there is a rampant multilingualism on the web. 

- People are adopting Engglish for intelligibility and their local languge for identity. 

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Giminez and Saraceni


states that if we all spoke English, it would give us all a sense of "planetary citizenship". 


Argues that we should talk about Engllishes rather than English, and we shouldn't think of English as belonging to English. 

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David Graddol

The current global wave of English my lose momentum. 

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Mark Rampton

We should not assume that nationality and ethnicity are the same as language ability and language allegiance.

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Andy Kirkpatrick

The use of the label ‘native’ for a person or variety means people feel that the variety used is a standard variety that is spoken by all of the people.

This leads to the feeling that this variety is innately superior to ESL and EFL varieties.

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Peter Strevens

(First ever model of World English) 

- American Englsih= Canada, Us, Puerto Rico and Philippines 

- British English= Rest of the world. 

Hierarchical diagram showing world Englsih in terms of their original origins. 


- Model fails to consider the English varieties that developed through contact with local vernaculars without relation to either British or American English. 

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Tom McArthur's Wheel Model

Shows world English divided into different but equal varieties.

- idealised central variety of Englsih 

- Localised varieties with some emerging standards. 

- Represents a world standard of English, varieties expanding out from the centre 

- Eight categories 

- Model made no suggestions of whcih variety was valued over others. 

- this protected the model from criticism of being baised towards native speakers. 

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Kachru's Three Circles

The Inner Circle: 

- Refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world                                - Speakers from England carried the language to Australia, New Zealand and North America          - Represents  traditional historical and soiolinguistic bases of English 

The Outer Circle:

- Produced by the second diaspora of English, spread the language through imperial expansion    - In these regions English is not the native tongue, serves as a useful lingua franca                         - Higher education, legislature and judiciary all carried out predominantly in English. 

Expanding Circle: 

- English plays no historical or governmental role, used as a medium of international communiction                                                                                                                                      

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 1

Foundation: English first appears in a new territory

- This is the initial stage of the introduction of English to a new territory over an extendered period of time                                                                                                                                                 - Two lingusidtic processes are happening at this stage (contacts between different dialects of english and beween languages) 

- Bilingualism is minimal 

- Borrowing are limited to lexical 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 2

Exonormative Stabillisation: English is used, standard English 

- Settler communities tend to stabilise politically under British rule

-  English use increases, colonial koine 

- Vocabularly continued to be adopted 

- Bilingualism increased through education and increased contact with English settlers

- Elite developed 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 3

Nativisation: Old and new languages become more closely linked 

- Settlers acceted new identities 

- Indigenous strand stabilished an L2 system which used code switiching adopted from the settlers koine Engllish 

- Neologisms stabilise as English is made to adapt to local social, political and cultural practices. 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 4 &5

4. Endonormative Stabilisation: Each English has its own standard and norms 

- gradual acceptance of local norms, supported by locally rooted linguistic self- confidence

- English independant of Britain 

- acceptance of local English (es) 

- National dictionaries for new lexis

- Literary creativity emerges 

5. Differentiation: variety develpos its own regional and soical difference. 

- Differences in varieties 

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