World English Theorists

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Robert McCrum and Robert Philipson

McCrum: 

Argues that the spread of global English is both inevitable and useful. 

Philipson: 

Argues that the spread of global English is linguistic imperialism, and is killing other languages and cultures.

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David Crystal

Agress that language death is a tragedy but hope in new technology. 

- there is a rampant multilingualism on the web. 

- People are adopting Engglish for intelligibility and their local languge for identity. 

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Giminez and Saraceni

Giminez: 

states that if we all spoke English, it would give us all a sense of "planetary citizenship". 

Saraceni: 

Argues that we should talk about Engllishes rather than English, and we shouldn't think of English as belonging to English. 

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David Graddol

The current global wave of English my lose momentum. 

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Mark Rampton

We should not assume that nationality and ethnicity are the same as language ability and language allegiance.

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Andy Kirkpatrick

The use of the label ‘native’ for a person or variety means people feel that the variety used is a standard variety that is spoken by all of the people.

This leads to the feeling that this variety is innately superior to ESL and EFL varieties.

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Peter Strevens

(First ever model of World English) 

- American Englsih= Canada, Us, Puerto Rico and Philippines 

- British English= Rest of the world. 

Hierarchical diagram showing world Englsih in terms of their original origins. 

CRITICISM: 

- Model fails to consider the English varieties that developed through contact with local vernaculars without relation to either British or American English. 

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Tom McArthur's Wheel Model

Shows world English divided into different but equal varieties.

- idealised central variety of Englsih 

- Localised varieties with some emerging standards. 

- Represents a world standard of English, varieties expanding out from the centre 

- Eight categories 

- Model made no suggestions of whcih variety was valued over others. 

- this protected the model from criticism of being baised towards native speakers. 

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Kachru's Three Circles

The Inner Circle: 

- Refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world                                - Speakers from England carried the language to Australia, New Zealand and North America          - Represents  traditional historical and soiolinguistic bases of English 

The Outer Circle:

- Produced by the second diaspora of English, spread the language through imperial expansion    - In these regions English is not the native tongue, serves as a useful lingua franca                         - Higher education, legislature and judiciary all carried out predominantly in English. 

Expanding Circle: 

- English plays no historical or governmental role, used as a medium of international communiction                                                                                                                                      

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 1

Foundation: English first appears in a new territory

- This is the initial stage of the introduction of English to a new territory over an extendered period of time                                                                                                                                                 - Two lingusidtic processes are happening at this stage (contacts between different dialects of english and beween languages) 

- Bilingualism is minimal 

- Borrowing are limited to lexical 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 2

Exonormative Stabillisation: English is used, standard English 

- Settler communities tend to stabilise politically under British rule

-  English use increases, colonial koine 

- Vocabularly continued to be adopted 

- Bilingualism increased through education and increased contact with English settlers

- Elite developed 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 3

Nativisation: Old and new languages become more closely linked 

- Settlers acceted new identities 

- Indigenous strand stabilished an L2 system which used code switiching adopted from the settlers koine Engllish 

- Neologisms stabilise as English is made to adapt to local social, political and cultural practices. 

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Schneider's dynamic model: Phase 4 &5

4. Endonormative Stabilisation: Each English has its own standard and norms 

- gradual acceptance of local norms, supported by locally rooted linguistic self- confidence

- English independant of Britain 

- acceptance of local English (es) 

- National dictionaries for new lexis

- Literary creativity emerges 

5. Differentiation: variety develpos its own regional and soical difference. 

- Differences in varieties 

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