World Development


Quality of Life

  • Economic:
    • Income
    • Job security
    • Standard of Living (housing, personal mobility)
  • Social:
    • Family and Friends
    • Education
    • Health
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Quality of Life

  • Physical:
    • Diet/nutrition
    • Water supply
    • Climate
    • Enviormental quality/hazard
  • Psychological
    • Happiness
    • Security
    • Freedom
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Low Income Countries (LIC)

  • Countries that have a GNI per capita of $1,045 according to the world bank.
  • These are poorer that have mainly primary jobs such as farming and mining.
  • Countries such as Bangladesh and Mali.
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High Income Countries (HIC)

  • A country that has a GNI per capita of $12,746 or above according to the World Bank.
  • These are richer countries that have a lot of industry and service jobs such as the UK and Japan.
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The Four worldd countries

  • First world countries refers to developed, industrial countries such as the UK.
  • Second world countries refers to former communist - socialist industrial states e.g. Russia.
  • Third world countries refers to developed countries in Africa and Aisa e.g. Bangladesh.
  • Fourth world countries traditionally refers to as under developed countries such as Cambodia and Chad.
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The Brandt Report

  • A report on the state of the world development was published in 1971.
  • It made a very simplistic division, contrasting economically richer and industrialised countries with poorer, less mature and largely agricultural ones.
  • A north south division line was drawn  onto a world map to make this difference clear.
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Different measures of development

  • the five - fold division based on wealth.
  • these divisions are entirely based on wealth.
    • Richer industrialising countries e.g. the UK
    • Oil exporting countries e.g. the UAE
    • Newly industrialising countries e.g. China
    • Former communist countries e.g. Russia
    • Heavily indebted poor countriees e.g. Kenya.
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Different measures of development

  • China is a newly industrialised country but has a communist goverment.
  • Many oil - exporting countries have earned huge amount of money from oil but the wealth is only shared between a few and the rest of the country is very poor.
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  • GNI is the total value of goods and services produced by a country (expressed per capita).
  • High income ($11,500 or more) = the UK
  • Middle, upper ($3,700 - $11,500) = Turkey
  • Middle, lower ($900 - $3,700) = India
  • Low income ($900 or less) = Madagascar
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Correlation between development indicators

  • GNI can be misleading, especially in LICs
  • Country`s may have a high GNI because they are relatively wealthy with a small poplulation.
  • A country`s average (doesn`t show individual wealth)
  • People in LICs and NEEs often work very hard but this isn`t included in GNI`s data (doesn`t take informal economies into account).
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Human Development Index (HDI)

  • This is based on:
    • Life expectancy at birth - this is an indicator of health.
    • Education - the HDI uses an education index based on the average number of years schooling.
    • Gross National Income (per capita) - this is an indicator of standard of living.
  • HDI is given a value 0-1 (max=1).
  • Wealthy countries have a HDI of over 0.9.
  • Whereas, poorer countries are around 0.5 or less.
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Standard of Living

  • Standard of living refers to the economic leve of a person's daily life.
  • Quality of life or Physical quality of life index (PQLI) uses only social measures of wellbeing (e.g. health and also includes intangible things like happiness and pleasent enviorment).
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The demographic Transition Model

Stage 1 (High Fluctuation):

  • Low population
  • High birth rate
  • High Death rate
  • Fluctuating due to disease/ war/ famine
  • Traditional Rainforest tribes
  • UK pre 1780
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The Demograpic Transition Model

Stage 2 (Early Expanding):

  • Population growing at faster rate
  • Higher but decreasing birth rate
  • Decreasing death rate
  • Afghanistan
  • UK - 1780 - 1880
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The Deomgraphic Transition Model

Stage 3 (Late Expanding):

  • Population still increasing, but rate of increase slowing down.
  • Decreasing birth rate
  • Low death rate
  • Kenya and India
  • UK - 1880 - 1940
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The Demographic Transition Model

Stage 4 (Low Fluctuation):

  • High population, almost stable
  • Low birth rate
  • Low death rate
  • Canada, USA and France
  • UK post - 1940
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The Demographic Transition Model

Stage 5:

  • Total population decreasing
  • Very low birth rate (but higher than DR)
  • Germany, Italy and Japan
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The Demographic Transition Model

See the source image (

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Reasons for stage 1

  • Little birth control
  • Children need to help work on the land
  • Some religions encourage large families
  • Diseases, famine, poor diet, poor hygiene and little medical science
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