Working memory introduction
This is a model of the details of STM, consisting of three components:
1) The CENTRAL EXECUTIVE, a control system for governing what we pay attention to in the environment, and for retrieving information from LTM so we can carry out mental tasks.
2) The PHONOLOGICAL LOOP, a slave system consisting of a temporary store for information we have just heard, called the "PHONOLIGAL STORE" (duration 1-2 seconds), and an "INNER VOICE" that we use for sub-vocal rehearsal and inner speech, called the articulary loop.
3) The VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD, a slave system consisting of a temporary store for visual information called the "VISUAL CACHE" (duration a few seconds), and a mechanism, the "INNER SCRIBE" for imagining in pictures.
Logie's lab experiment - Procedure
Participants were given lists of words to remember in order. They had to remember the word lists in one of two different ways:
1) using IMAGES to help remember the words
2) through SUB-VOCAL REHEARSAL (repeating the words silently in their heads).
Then they were dilliberately DISTRACTED, half by IRRELEVANT SPEECH, and half by IRRELEVANT PICTURES OF LINE DRAWINGS on a screen.
Finding, conclusions, strengths and weaknesses
FINDINGS: People who learned through repeating the words silently were hardly effected by the pictures, but they were badly distracted by the speech: they only did 88% as well as normal.
People who learned through memorising pictures were slightly distracted distracted by speech, but were more distracted by pictures doing only 82% as well as normal.
CONCLUSION: These results support the idea that pictures and sounds are stored in different componants. PICTURES DISRUPT THE SKETCHPAD, SOUNDS DISRUPT THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP.
STRENGTH: lab experiment - can CONTROL EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES.
WEAKNESS: participants can manipulate results, especially if they can guess what it is about - "PARTICIPANT REACTIVITY".