Working memory model.
Working memory model focuses on short term memory. STM is more complex and dynamic than first thought.- BY BADDELEY.
The WMM is made up of:
Sensory Memory ---> Visuospatial sketchpad + Phonological loop <---> Central executive ---> Long term memory.
The short term memory is made up of:
Centrual executive: Is the most important part as it controls the others. It decides which information in the sense organs should be tended to. It also the allocates this information to the 'slave systems' (Phonological loop and Visuospatial sketchpad). Can also store small amounts of info whilst other memory tasks are carried out.
Phonological loop: Stores info acoustically and Consists of:
Phonological store: Store information briefly (2 seconds). This means more short words can be remembered than long words.
Articulatory loop: Allows repetiton of items from Phonological store.
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual and spatial data and manipulate mental images. (example: when given directions we visualise them in our heads)
Each system has limited capacity.
They systems work seperately from eachother. So we cant do more than one thing at a time in one system but the two systems can work at the same time.
Example: We'd struggle to draw a picture and give directions but we'd have no problems drawing a picture whilst talking to someone.
Baddeley found it impossible to complete 2 tasks at once if those tasks are using the same systems in working memory. He found when participants listened to american foot ball whilst driving it impaired their driving ability.
This is due to them trying to visualise the american football in their heads while trying to watch the road. Both tasks are preformed by the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
Baddeley found evidence to phonological loop duration due to participants being able to remember short words better than long becuase short words can be processed within 2 seconds.
Additional Ao2 points: Baddeley added the 'Episodic buffer' to the model after realising there needed to be a general store to hold information that relates to both acoustic and visual information.
WMM doesnt specify how information is transferred from STM to LTM and only accounts for STM.