Women & Pornography

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Dworkin (1992)

  • Pornography derives from the greek work 'porne' which means writing about whores
  • Those who were written about were regarded as cheap, and available to anyone at the wish of the man
  • So the word *********** does not have anything to do with what we associate it with, it is about a certain type of woman
  • Even now that *********** is different (cameras, magazines) the content is the same
  • Women are still there to serve men sexually
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Dworkin (1992)

  • The power of man never ceases to exist in society; exists in literature, wealth, laws and customs
  • Men have the power they need to sustain themselves - they have strength over those who are less strong to get what they need
  • Men are physically stronger than women so they hold more power over them
  • Women are kept weak by their Fathers and then their Husbands
  • Men hold power - they also hold the ability to terrorise
  • They hold a weapon of terror
  • Men are able to choose when they use the weapon and how they use it (subtly, forcefully etc.)
  • Sex is an act of possession; taking force, conquering
  • The woman is acted upon and the man acts meaning he has power
  • Sex is an act experienced by women and controlled by men
  • Women are used as an object 
  • This theme is present throughout *********** and encourages this type of behaviour
  • This sends the message that women are there to celebrate male power
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Russell (1993)

  • Kutchinsky's work of the 1970s showed that sex crime against women had reduced since censorship laws had been introduced
  • He was wrong and his work was deeply flawed but his work was very influential
  • There was then a burst of pornographic material in society 
  • Within this material women were represented as passive and dependent upon men
  • They were also not shown to experience pleasure, their pleasure was pleasing the man
  • Are women socialised this way through the habitus?
  • Pornography encourages sexually violent behaviour against women 
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Stoltenberg (1993)

  • The idea of sexual freedom exists in society - but how far is this true?
  • Sexual freedom is linked with notions of being able to act without being judged, act without facing constraints, free from guilt, fear and shame
  • Where is the sexual freedom when a woman is tied up and gagged in a pornographic piece of material?
  • Sexual freedom does not include women; it preserves male dominance
  • Pornography institutionalises male supremacy in the same way that racism institutionalises white supremacy 
  • Pornography makes male supremacy (violence, domination, force) ****
  • It keeps sexism ****
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White (1993)

  • Pornography shows women as objects
  • In degrading poses and says that they are nothing more than a body 
  • Writes about his research
  • One woman had been gang-***** by men who used ***********
  • One women's husband used pornographic material as a guide on how to tie her up then sexually assault her
  • These stories are similar to stories of black slavery in the US
  • Where slaves were tied up and forced to do things against their will
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Dufresne (1993)

  • Porn taught him everything he needed to know about sex and women
  • He sexually assaulted a girl because he thought she had to have sex with him
  • Porn is called a fantasy - but when it is part of someones everyday life it becomes very real
  • Men have the power to control women and *********** encourages such fantasies of control and sexual abuse 
  • Hurting women has been turned into something normal and **** because of the *********** industry
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Dworkin and MacKinnon (1993)

  • Many women in *********** are victims of sexual abuse 
  • Many women are forced into *********** by their husbands or fathers
  • When in the *********** industry, they are valued by the look of their body
  • Yes *********** is a symptom of mysoginy in society - that doesn't mean nothing should be done
  • Just because equal pay did not cause patriarchy in society does not mean it should be ignored
  • If something puts women at a disadvantage compared to men in society, then feminists will fight for its cause to stop it from happening
  • There is evidence that *********** is a generator of woman hating attitudes in society 
  • It promotes sexual violence, making men think it is not violence at all
  • Pornography has ALWAYS been about degrading women 
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