Women in Jewish Society
> Women had an inferior role to men
>Peter Vardy & Mary Mills "to be less than intelligent than men"
> Played very little part in public/religious life
> When outside the home, covered their faces with a veil so not to be recognised -> if did not do this or spoke to a strange man-> could be divorced without any rights
> Law of Moses-> required them to be submissive & obedient
> Only education -> learning domestic skills e.g. cooking/ weaving
> A woman gained respect by bearing her husband a male & was known by her sons name e.g. Mary the mother of Jesus
>If a woman could not bear a child she was deemed to be Gods punishment
Jesus & Women
> Jesus treats women as equals
>Taught them in the same way as he taught men-> not allowed/ illegal
>Spoke to women of inferior social position, e.g. Samaritan Woman& Woman Caught in Adultery
>Offers them both a new beginning-> based on a relationship with him
>Jesus encouraged women to listen to his teaching-> privellage usually given to men
>Broke several conventions
>Preformed miracles for the benefit of women
>In the fourth gospel->Women are shown in a positive light & act as true diciples
>Jesus brings women before God on an equal footing with men
The Wedding at Cana
>Is it really "women" story?
>Real heart of story-> Replacement Theology-> Judaism has ran out & cannot filfil the people-> Jesus come to replace Judaism
>When the wine runs out Mary tells jesus "They have no wine" (no salvation) ->She knows of the power & authority he has
>Jesus also performs his first miracle for a woman
>"My time has not yet come"-> he does it as a response to his mothers wishJOSEPH GRASSI
>Suggestd that the Author uses the Mother of Jesus as a disciple& witness. She appears at the beginning (cana) & at the end (the cross).
>Jesus' mother acts as a link between the beginning of the ministry & the cross
>There is wine& the water at the wedding& she will see the blood(wine) & living water of jesus a the crucifixion
The Wedding at Cana
WILFRID J. HARRINGTON
>Wedding at Cana-> Although the wedding at cana is about replacement theology, the water of the jewish purification rituals is turned into wine, symbolising the old order being replaced by the new
>Wilfrid J. Harrington states that " the mother appears to stand outside the world of the Father & Son". Yet her response is "Do whatever he asks you".
>Her reaction is one of faith in Jesus.
>F.J. Moloney tells us that "She is the first person in the narratie to show that the correct response to the power of Jesus is to trust in his word... she trusts unconditionally"
>In reply to Marys request & becuase of her expectant & obedient reply, Jesus cannot resist faith, Jesus does perform a sign. The prophets had foretold of an abundance of wine in messianic days -> Amos 9:3-14
>The abundance of wine at cana fulfils these prophecies & points to the messianic nature of Jesus' minsistry
The Wedding at Cana
>John tells us that the changing of water to wine takes place before passover, the same time that jesus would change wine into his eucharistic blood "they have no wine" appears to be a comment on judaism, it has run out or is barren. "Do what he tells you" appears to give us an ex of discipleship & faith. Her trust in Jesus leads to a sign that produces faith amongst the disciples
RAYMOND E. BROWN
>Marys statement "they have no wine" maybe a comment on the barrenness of Judaism
>Mary is used as an exampe of discipleship, Role model for the male diciples, shes not only equal but an example
Samaria- Outcasts, rejected, unseen
>Samaritan Woman is portrayed as the ideal disciple
>Meets him i a state of ignorance, but leaves him having being spiriually reborn by living water
>Spreads the good news of Jesus-> Disciple
>Samaritans were jews who had intermixed with foreigners & lost their purity. Traditional jews dispised them. Unclean/Impure
>4:10 "If you knew the gift of God & who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him & he would have given you living water"
>She does not understand
>Jesus was talking about spiritual water "whoever drinks the water i give him will never thrist"
>She then realises that Jesus is a prophet
>"Spirit & truth"- Worship through Jesus
>Jesus tells her that he is the Messiah, soemthing he does not even tell his male disciples-> why? Making women equal
>Leaves her water jar-> symbol of abandoning old life-> living water of christ-> returns to the town with good news-> disciples
>People of the town believed in Jesus
> "Jesus' word provokes faith"
>In V27, th edisciples cannot hide thir scandal at such conduct. "They were astonished that he was speaking to a woman"
>The "jew" of v7 has become "sir" in v9. The samaritan woman, quickly adjusts to the prophet& then messiah
>"I am" recalls Exodus 3:14, where it refers to the living prescence of God among his people- it gives Jesus authority
>Many of the samartians had believed in the testimony of the woman, sharing her faith. They came to a deeper faith when they heard the word of Jesus
Women Cuaght in Adultery
>Woman was guilty of fornication before marriage. Under the Law of Moses-> punishable by death
>Deutaronomy 22:23 "if a man is found sleeping with another mans wife both the man who slept with her & the woman must die"
>She was brought before Jesus by the Jewish authorities. They were trying to trap him
>He would not condemn her & said "if anyone of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw as stone at her"
>The crowd left & the woman was spared
>Jesus did not excuse her sin but belived that the law should not be impossed in such a harsh way.
>"Neither do i condemn you go away & from this moment sin no more" -> Jesus shows compassion & the jews adhere to the letter of the law
Women Caught in Adultery
>The purpose of the scribes & pharacies in bringing the adultress to jesus was to entrap im. if he pardoned her he could be accused of encouraging people to infringe the law of Moses, which prescribed death by stoning for such conduct.
>If he agreed to her stoning, he would lose his name for mercy
>Jesus chooses mercy and forgiveness
>Augustine comments two stood there alone- wretchedness & mercy
Martha & Mary
>"She went out to meet him" -> disciple, volunteers
>Aware of his authority, 'but even now i know that god will give you what you want'
>Jesus teaches theology, about resurrection
>Open to his teachings
>Accepts-> Follower of christ
>She shows faith & jesus tells her "i am the ressurection and the life"
>Example of discipleship
>Martha -> a woman who cearly understands the resurrection & identified who jesus is. The male disciples show less understanding than a woman