Wjec Geography B Theme 1&2

Notes I made for my exam tommorow and anyone else who needs them 


Quality of Life across Port Talbot : Theme 1

Where: Port Talbot

A place where people live in a town or city

Inner City- Around the CBD, Low income families , Single parents and elderly people, concentrated in areas such as taibach and Abervan  in mainly terraced houses.

Inner Suburbs-  Housing is more modern which are more expensive and larger.Higher income families with more skilled jobs, Young married couples, families with children and elderly retired couples whose children have left home- Pentyla and Margam.

Outer Suburbs- Highest Earners and Most skilled professionals, Families and retired couples- Baglan and Blaen Baglam

People live in different earners due to income and if people cant drive or cant afford to run a car

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McArthur Glen Retail Park: Theme 1

Distribution of a Service

Where: Cardiff and Swansea, junction 36 of the M4, brownfield site, near villages of Sarn and Litchard, 2 miles north of Bridgend town centre

Reasons why located there: large area of flat land, very accessible (M4), space for car parking, close to urban centres of Cardiff and Swansea, large supply of customers and labour in Bridgend (50,000), not close to out-of-town retail parks so there's less competition, brownfield site so services already available e.g. gas, water, electricity

Positive: local residents, school leavers, unemployed, day trippers from outside area, local residents

Negative f: local residents, town centre economy, town centre traders, commuters hitting congestion in the area

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Cardiff Bay Redevelopment: Theme 1

Planning Issue

 Where: South east Wales, 15 miles west of Newport, redevelopment of Cardiff docklands into Cardiff Bay, located in southern part of capital city, shoreline of Bristol Channel.

  • Old industrial landscape concentrated around docklands declined as iron, steel and coal industry disappeared - urban decay
  • Cardiff Urban Development Corporation regenerated area 1987

Changes made: 30,000 jobs, 6,000 homes, freshwater lake, marine, controversial £191 million barrage

Positive: created entertainment for tourists and local residents, good for city of Cardiff as the area has been regenerated.

Negative: local residents on low incomes can't access facilities as they are too expensive - they feel that they weren't consulted in the redevelopment process, RSPB opposed barrage as habitats disappeared

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Self-help housing in Sao Paulo: Theme 1

Planning Scheme 

Where :Brazillian city of Sao Paulo, south east Brazil in South America

Scheme: People living in favelas (slums) on outskirts of city had improvement in housing quality - city authorities and the local government made 'self-help' schemes.

Authorities provide materials that too expensive for the local residents to purchase e.g. bricks, windows, doors, cement, roof tiles

Residents group together and literally help themselves to build permanent houses so the scheme involves the authorities and residents working together

How has it affected the quality of life: Houses can withstand poor weather conditions as they are strong and sturdy

  • water, sanitation installed which reduce illness and disease - electricity installed so residents can afford luxuries e.g. radio
  • Area: safer as they have street lighting and people are more content and happier
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International Migration (Mexico to USA): Theme 1

People are Migrating from

Why are people moving:

Push factors: poor medical facilities, lower life expectancy than USA, unemployment, 55% adult literacy rate, low incomes

Pull Factors: higher life expectancy than Mexico, excellent medical facilities (400 per doctor), 99% adult literacy rate, many jobs available, well paid jobs

Impacts on Mexico: provides Mexicans with hopes and dreams, often the young migrate leaving the elderly so the economy suffers as there is less people to work, some people send money back to families improving their quality of life

Impacts on USA: boosts US economy as migrants are prepared to work longer hours for lower pay - business profit, influx of different ethnic groups (beliefs, religions, cultures) which can cause racial conflict and violence/criminality  

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Rural to Urban Migration in an LEDC: Theme 1

Population changes in rural areas

Where: north east Brazil - people pushed away from drought area known as the 'Caatinga' and being pulled to the big cities inthe south east

  • Nova Casa Nova and Sao Francisco to Belo Horizonte, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo

Why are people moving: Harsh climate which causes long term drought - water scarce, crops fail, starving, illness, high infant mortality and death rate.

Impacts: Young men and women leaving the area in search of a better quality of life in city areas so the area has less young, fit, healthy people to farm the land and run the house so families struggle even more - sometimes they send money back to families in the countryside improving their quality of life

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A Sustainable- Curitiba, Brazil: Theme 1

Planning Issue in urban area/sustainable urban area

Where: Curitiba City located in the State of Parana, south east of Brazil, south of Sao Paulo and Rio De Janeiro

Integrated bus system: express bus routes, tube shaped bus stations protect from weather and allow rapid entry and exit of buses, buses can carry 270 passengers, more people using public transport means less cars used and so less pollution

Green exchange: over production in agricultural greenbelt is not sustainable and a waste of resources - more socially deprived areas of the city benefit from the over production - they can't afford healthy fruit and vegetables so they exchange their unwanted items/recyclable trash for food - this works well as no food is wasted and there is no illegal dumping of items so it's a win win situation

Garbage and recycling scheme: recycling teams collect organic and non-organic waste from the kerbside which residents sort out their waste first before putting in on the kerbside - the waste goes to the recycling plant

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Visitor Pressue in Snowdania National Park: Theme

Rural Area under pressure from visitors

Where:Snowdonia National Park situated on the west coast of Britain, covers 823 square miles, living working area home to over 26,000 people, largest national park in Wales, highest mountain in Wales, Snowdonia steeped in culture and local history

Things to do: scenic drives, mountain walks, visit summit of Snowdon, white water rafting, mountain biking, camping, fishing, studying wildlife, landscapes.

Positive impacts: jobs for local people, income for the local economy, increased demand for local food/crafts, helps to preserve local rural services e.g. post offices, pressure to conserve wildlife and habitats.

Negative impacts: damage to landscape (litter, fire, erosion), traffic congestion, demand for more hotels and shops, local goods made expensive as tourists are willing to pay more, pollution

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Boscastle Flood, August 2004: Theme 2

Flood Event

Where: Boscastle a small village situated on the confluence of river Valency and Jordan.Flows between Bristol Channel.

Causes: Heavy intense rainfall 7 ft. Ground became quickly saturated and surface run off was rapid and widespread.Steep gradient of river valleys were influential in the speed at which the run-off entered the water.

Impacts:Severe structural damage to buildings, 75 cars and 5 caravans , six buildings and several boasts washed away. 100 homes and businesses destroyed; trees uprooted and debris scattered over wide area.Ground floors covered in mud washed in by flood water

Management: Flood defences , new bridges and overflow culvert. Widening and lowering of the river channel increase capacity. Car park raised and extended reduce risk of cars being washed away

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A river landform, Niagara Falls: Theme 2

River Landform

Where: Border of USA and Canada alongside the Niagara river

Uses: Tourist attraction with restaurant, hotels etc. Extreme Sports,Suicide, Hydro Electric power to power homes and industrys, Employment opportunities and getting married in front of falls.

What's there: 3 waterfalls Canadian Horseshoe falls, American falls and Bridal Veil falls.

Impact: High Prices, litter, traffic congestion, pollution and entrepreneurs make a "quick buck or two"

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A coastal landform Southern Cliffs, Bridgend: Them

Coastal Landform that attracts people

Where: 5 miles SE of Bridgend and Between Ogmore by sea and Llantwit major

How formed: Weathering weakens top of cliff, Sea attacks base of cliff forming wave cut notch, notch increases in size causing cliff to collapse, backwash carries rubble towards sea forming a wave cut platform.

Positives: Used as a fishing mark, Good fishing here by "Ogmore deeps". Popular for walking , running etc. Popular in summer with sunbathers

Negatives: Cliff retreating and eroding access to beach. New roads being built causing disruption to beach users. Suicide hot spot as cliff tops are high and easy access but now but bollards to prevent cars from being able

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Aberavon Beach, Port talbot: Theme 2

Coastal Management Scheme

Where: Aberavon Beach, Port talbot

Why it needs protecting: As its exposed fully to prevailing winds and waves develop over the Atlantic ocean. Prone to constant erosion . Several important land uses close to close line such as promenade, shops, apartments, houses and several leisure and recreation facilities that need protecting.

What has been done: Rock armour and a sea wall.South east of the beach a large breakwater extends into the sea which absorbs the wave energy and reduces erosion.In front of sea wall rock armour comprising very large boulders sit directly on sand providing further protection for sea wall.

Impacts: Lots of positive impacts on people and environment. Promenade is very popular attraction as is the long sandy beach. Breakwater is popular with fisherman. Area significantly redeveloped and has been put on Port Talbot back on the coastal resort map.Provided local jobs and generated money for local economy.

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Hurricane Katrina : Theme 2

Low Pressure weather event

Where&When: Formed over the Bahamas on August 23rd 2005.Hit mainland USA in SE Louisiana August 29th.

Impacts: 1836 Deaths, 135 Missing, $81.2 billion damage- costliest natural disaster in US history, Lack of clean water, Power shortages across huge area, Damage to buildings and roads and communication failed.

How it was managed:President bush signed $ 10.5 billion relief package within four days and ordered 7,200 active-duty troops to assist with relief efforts.Government critisiced for slow respond. Treatment of people who had evacuated to registered facilitiessuch as the superdome was also criticized.

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European Heatwave 2003: Theme 2

High Pressure Weather event

Where: Europe, June 2003 to August 2003 , Effected mostly Western Europe- France ,Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Uk.

Impacts:Refrigerated warehouse outside paris by undertakers to store dead bodies. Extensive fires in Portugal 5% of the countryside and 10% of forest destrited. In Germany, shipping could not navigate the Danube or Elbe rivers as water was so low.Melting glaciers in the Alps caused avalanches and flash floods in switzerland.Due to earlier ripening of grapes, wine across europe improved in quality.

Facts& Figures: Eu wheat production down by 10 million tonnes, Uk Record Temperature broken 38.5 near in kent.

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Amazon Rainforest: Theme 2

Ecosystem destroyed by humans

Where: Amazon rainforest is located on the continent of south America

Why is it is it being deforested and who is doing it?

Resources- Paper, Coffee, Peoples Homes, Fuel wood, Tourism Drugs and Medicines, Food-Fruit , chocolate, honey and spices.Timber-furniture.

Who's using them- Logging companies, Pharmaceutical companies, mining companies, farming, HEP projects, Oil companies and Communication companies.

What are the consequence's of deforestation?: 

On Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere- Cutting trees and burning them adds CO2 to the Atmosphere (in smoke), CO2 adds to greenhouse effect which causes Global warming.Fewer trees to absorb CO2 from atmosphere.

On Food Chains and Webs- Fewer Primary consumers and Secondary, Primary consumers lose their habitat and have less to eat and plants have no long as many insects and animals

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A water shortage Scheme: Theme 2

Scheme to change the supply of water

Where: The Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, border between UA states of Arizona and Nevada 

Description of Scheme: Constructed to provide water for surrounding states of Nevada and Arizona, Constructed between April 1931 and March 1936, 34th largest Hydro Electric Power facility, Located 30 miles south eat of Las Vegas.

Advantages:Provides electricity for surrounding states, Dam provides crossing point for people travelling on US route 93, Provides valuable water supply to states experiencing drought, Large number of visiting the dam bring lot of money for the local economy.

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Do u know any things that are like to come up in that exam a bit  stuck? great info



Added more notes for you ;D. On my timetable it says the exams about theorys but thats all i know sorry. :(. And thanks



First Exam is Theme 1 & 2 Challenges living in a built enviroment and People and the worlds interactions



Yeh, thanks great info. that helped me a lot



Np :D Theme 2 up soon!

Han <3


Thank you @PinkFluffs :)) This really helped me on top of having all the geography revision guides and my mind maps :))) 

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