- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 26-12-19 09:36
- His father went on pilgramage and died, leaving him the dukedom.
- 3 of his regents were murdered and Norman lords took too much power.
- 1047, first battle at Val-es-Dunes, fought with Henry I against his cousin Guy and rebels.
- Alencon rebelled, hanging out hides to mock his mother Herleva's family and his illegitimcay.
- William cut off thier hands and feet so neighbouring Domfort surrendered.
- Geoffrey of Martel and Henry invaded Normandy in 1054, William beat them by dividing his men and stopping them from reaching supplies. 1057, invaded again but they were defeated.
- 1060, both Geoffrey and Henry died leaving William safe.
- Philip I was a minor and ruled by the Count of Anjou, William's father in law.
- 1063, William invaded Maine and 1064, Brittany. Campainged a lot, but not on set battles.
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- William promised rewards to the nobles and sent Lanfranc to the Pope.
- Stressing Harold's perjury and oath, and Stigand's corruption of the church, the Pope sent a banner. Soldiers from Ponthieu and Flanders joined William.
- He gathered men, food, fuel, war horses, food for men and horses and water.
- This stopped the army pillaging his own countryside.
- 28th September, the army set off. He harboured in Hastings.
- He tried to tempt Harold into battle by attacking his land in Wessex.
- Harold marched 300km from York in 8 days, not letting his men plunder (unpopular, deserted.)
- He spent 5 days in London then recklessly marched on without reinforcements.
- Archers, Edwin and Morcar did not fight at Hastings.
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- The Saxons were spotted by scouts, so they could not attack by suprise.
- Harold occupied the hight ground on Senlac Hill wiht 7-8k men.
- He fought using a shield wall of thegns and housecarls and fyordmen at the back.
- This would stop Norman cavalry. William had archers at the front, professional fighters behind and the cavalry at the back. William led from the front, not behind a shield wall.
- 9 o clock, the battle began. Shield wall protected the cavalry for several hours.
- The Normans ran down the hill since William died/feigned attack.
- Harold broke formations and the fjordmen charged, allowing the Norman knights to cut them down. Feigned retreats followed until Harold was killed by an arrow or 4 knights.
- The English lost morale and Godwine earls Gyrth and Leofwine died fighting.
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- William was prepared, with support from locals, Frenchmen and the Pope.
- He planned his logistics and battle tactics (feigned retreat) and had experience.
- He stayed in a defensive region and provoked Harold, stopping Harold's home advantage.
- His troops were loyal and motivated to gain booty and land.
- He had heavy cavalry and archers and commanded on horse, not foot.
- Harold rushed to attack William, losing his preferred time and place for battle.
- He could have raised a larger army but did not wait- many were already dead.
- His housecarls were not as experienced as Norman mercenaries.
- Untrained and undisciplined peasants broke the shield wall.
- Harold lacked inspiration and did not stay on the hill's defensive position.
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