Why did Jerusalem start to divide?

  • Created by: zoeshirra
  • Created on: 19-05-19 17:05

Baldwins Leprosy

contracted it as a child 

worsened rapidly 

blind and paralysed by his 20s 

during campaign he had to be strapped to his horse 

the longer he lived the weaker the states became 

wouldnt produce an heir 

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Consequent factionalism

Due to Baldwin not producing an heir there was factionalism over who would succeed him on the throne

Would it be Isabella, his half sister, or Sibylla his sister and her son Baldwin 

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Sibyllas marriage to Guy

Sibylla had pressure to remarry after the death of her previous husband William of Montferrat. 

Needed a step father to act as regent for her son. 

Pressure from hawks and doves with different suitors benig presented 

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Reynald de chatillion provoked Saladin

he had been captured in 1161- constance had died during his captivity, lost claim to Antioch 

released in 1176 for 120,000 gold dinars 

married stephanie of milly in 1177- became lord of transjordan 

1182: 2 year truce with Saladin ended 

saladin attacked twice 

in response: humiliated saladin by disruptiing pilgrimage routes, transported ships to red sea, attacked shipping 

majority captured by 1183

in retalliation saladiin beseieged reynald at Kerak

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Guy failed to deal with salads response

Failure of seiege at Kerak saladin moved further into Galilee 

Al-Fule campaign, 1183

Guy ordered his forces not to engage with saladins and just shadow them 

Success: 

prevented loss of any strongholds or territory, prevented loss of men

Failures:

gathered 1,300 cavalry and 15,000 infantry 

forces from Jerusalem, antioch and tripoli 

huge expense 

failed to hammer home advantage 

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Baldwin IV and guy fell out

Baldwin was annoyed at Guy for not engaging and imposing final blow 

Baldwin appointed Baldwin V as his heir which annoyed Guy 

Raymond III faction was back on top 

Raymond III appointed regent in 1185

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Baldwin V reign

Baldwin V reign: 1185-86

Raymond III: regent 

Joscelin III: guardian 

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Sibylla and Guys coup

Jerusalem nobility wanted Sibylla on the throne but not Guy 

in order to get the throne Sibylla had to divorce Guy and remarry

once she was crowned by the patriarch of jerusalem she chose guy as her husband once more 

Raymonds reaction

refused to pay homage to guy, goes to tiberia. signs a truce with saladin out of anger 

1187: he allowed saladins forces to enter the kingdom of jerusalem. 

Battle of Cresson, a numer of templars and hospitallers were sent to deal with the forces and were almost completely wiped out 

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Summary- Bad luck

Death of William of Montferat 

Leprosy of Baldwin IV 

Early death of Baldwin V

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Summary- Bad choices

Choice to divide rather than unite 

Baldwin IV: choice of guy as husband

Sibylla and Guy: choice to carry out deceptive coup

Raymond III: choice to sign truce with saladin 

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Summary

Internal divisions preoccupied Jerusalem 

Prevented coherrant response 

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