Human- How many casualties were there as a result?
At least 10% of Russia's population died between 1941-45
Conservatives estimate- 20 million Russians citizens died as a result of the conflict
Including the number who died in Gulags and died from war- related injuries figures rose to more than 30 million
Human- How did the war cause social upheaval?
85 million Russians (45% pop) under German control during War
20 million fled west to escape communist repression after the war
Some population movement was under the control of Stalin:
Kalmyk people moved from Stalingrad and Rostov provinces to Siberia- to prevent collaboration with Germans
130,000 forcibly relocated
Due to brutal treatment and Siberia's harsh conditions- 60% died
Human- What impact did it have on working conditio
Agriculture deterioriated further during conflict. Production and maintainance of tractors ceased as factories were converted to produce tanks and aircrafts
Fields were ploughed by hand
Workers were expected to work 7 days a week for the duration of the war, with factory shifts of 12-18 hours. Some workers were even expected to work an additional night shift on farms during harvest
First day offf for four years was 9th May 1945
Discipline tightened- workers 20 minutes late or caught stealing handed to military and tried for crimes
Workers who changed jos without appropriate authorisation faced 5-8 years imprisonment
Human- What role did Women play?
Women bore the brunt of the Russian war effort
They were expected to work in factories and field, whilst still caring for there families
Women made up the majority of the workforce, with some regions e.g. Shadrinsk where they made up 75% of the workforce
They were frequently required to perform tasks which were usually for machines or animals
-yolked to ploughs due to absence of animals and tractors
Human- How were families affected?
Young people 14-17 were drafted into 'labour reserve schools' - form of vocational training in preparation for war work
Senior party members from Leningrad or Moscow, sent to regional factories/ collective farms to organise production
-worked away for a period of years
-common to start a second family
-at the end of the war they deserted their 'war families' to return home
Economic- How did it affect industrial production?
When German forces occupied Russian territory, they gained control of 1/3 of Russian industry and agriculture
Russian labour was conscripted for the armed forces
1942- 59% of 1940's levels
1944- 79% of 1940's levels
1942- 32% of 1940's levels
1944- 64% of 1940's levels
Economic- What was the impact on Living Standards?
Electricity supplies to the general public were stopped in late 1941, not to be restored until after the war
Workers were sustained by meagre rations- the government taking 90% of collective farms' produce
Leningrad sustained on 'Blockade Bread'- made mostly out of sawdust
Citizens also sustained on birds, rats, pets and extremely cannibalism
Economic- What was the impact on infrastructure?
June 1941- Sovnarkom decree to destroy or sabotage any industrial equiptment that would fall into German hands
Germans adopted a similar policy when retreating in 1943
1/4 of Russian pre-war industrial equipment destroyed between 1941-5
Areas occupied by Germans- more that 2/3 of industrial equiptment destroyed
Retreating, Germans operated 'a scorched earth' policy, preventing Russian economic gain from miltary success