What were England's foreign policy objectives between 1515 and 1525?



January 1515, Louis XII dies succeeded by Francis I, like Henry wanted to make his mark yet he had more money and resources to do this.

Anglo-Frence peace ended with the sending of Scottish claimant, Duke of Albany to overthrow Margaret as regent. 

Francis won crushing battle at Mariginano September 1515 over the Swiss, giving him control of Milan and most of Northern Italy

Wolsey proposed to create a anti-French league but...January 1516, Ferdinand died to be succeeded by grandson, Charles I 

Charles did not want to engage with war straight away so did not renew terms with England, instead making peace with France at Noyon in 1516, later to be joined by his other Grandfather, Maximillian in 1517

Even through Wolsey's best efforts, England was left isolated and humilated by the end of 1517

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Treaty of London 1518

With England being forced to seek peace with France, the Treaty of London was created in 1518

In October 1518, the Anglo-French peace treaty was signed

During this time the Pope sent representative to England to try to mobilise a campaign against the ottomans.

Wolsey hijacked this calling for international treaty of universal peace and friendship.

Subscribed by 20 European leaders, including Francis I, Charles I, Maximilian and the Pope.

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How important is the Treaty of London?

When: October 1518
Purpose: To achieve peace and give Henry time to rearm, Guarenteed non agression between the major powers, Built in the principle of collective security 

Successes: Short-term peace...heaped presitige on to Henry's reign...ending the threat of English isolation in Europe...Anglo-French treaty- Tournai give back but further pensions recieved...Henry's daughter...Mary betrothed to the Dauphin...Duke of Abany kept out of Scotland

Failures: It only lasted three years- Habsburg-Valois wars broke out...Not mentioned in alot of history books- was it that important?

Wolsey also recieved the commission of Legate a latere

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Spain or France?

In January 1519, Maximillian died, leaving a power struggle between his grandson, Charles I of Spain and Francis I of France.

The next Holy Roman Emperor was obvioiusly going to be Charles due to the family connection and in doing so maintaining the Habsburg lineage

This left Francis enciricled by Charles with a Habsburg-Valois conflict seeming inevitable, as Charles was now the most powerful leader other that the Pope

Wolsey and Henry contined to present England as the peacemaker, but at the same time both France and Spain were looking at England to be their ally against the other

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The Field of the Cloth of Gold 1520

When: June 1520

Where: Just outside of Calais

Who: Henry and Francis I

Why: For Francis to try to convince Henry to ally with him against Charles for the Habsburg-Valois war

What: A meeting betwenn Hnery and Francis, in which jousting, wrestling and feasts took place, it last a fortnight and was organised by Wolsey. It consisted of 6,000 people attending on the king, including 3,000 notables from both countries

Apart from the splender it had little diplomatic value, wasting a years revenue as it was obvious that Henry was going to side with Charles

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Henry and Charles?

Henry meet Charles twice to discuss them making an alliance, the first of which was before the Field of the Cloth of Gold in May 1520 when he visited England. The second visit was in July 1520 in which Henry and Wolsey meet Charles at Gravelines

It was likely that England would side with Spain for a number of reasons:

Charles was the most powerful out of the two

England traditionally had resentment towards France

England had important trade links with the low countries, allience with Charles would safeguard this

Papal policy was anti-French, the Pope felt vunerable due to French expansion in northern Italy

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August 1521

Calais Conference- Wolsey organised three way conference in Calais, in which England was yet again the peacemaker. Wolsey tried to negociate peace deal between Francis and Charles; both sides were jus buying time and trying to win Henry over. 

Treaty of Bruges- Wosley travelled to Bruge to create settlement with Charles, in that Henry would ally with him. It was agreed that Henry would invade France if Francis would not agree peace.

At the end of the agreement it was agreed (by Wosley) that England would not enter the war on France until 1523, in the hope that the situation would have changed and tha England's assitance wouldn't be needed

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The Second French War 1522-25

England invaded France, May 1522 in which the Earl of Surrey lead a party into Normandy and Picardy. 

Like before Charles V's troops did not support Henry's troops

In August 1523, the Duke of Bourbon took up arms against Francis in a serious rebellion, offering the chance of a triple attack

The Duke of Suffolk was sent with 11,000 troops to march to Paris, however niether the duke nor Charles backed him up 

Henry had been abandonded again yet this time it had no reward

Wolsey was eager to release England from her obligations of the Treaty of Bruges, doing all he could to resist imperial demands, he secretly looked for peace elsewhere

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The Battle of Pavia 24th February 1525

Francis I's army was rounded up by Imperial troops at Pavia in northern Italy

10,000 French soilders were killed and Francis himself was trapped under his horse and captured

Battle rocked the foundations of European policy

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