pre stalin russia

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  • Created by: Mary-kate
  • Created on: 08-01-13 20:33

How had Alexander II (1855-1881) brought change to

  • he liberated the serfs in 1861
  • he also created the zemstva in 1864 which was russias first ever form of elective government. they were limited to rural areas. they had resoinsibility for elementary education and road building. they were elected by the educated and wealthy in 1870 elective local government was extended to towns and cities
  • Alex II also introduced trail by jury in 1870 - before 1870 trials were decided by a judge appointed by a provincial govenor. from 1870 trails were decided by juries made up of ordinary russians.
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What problems did Alexander III face when he becam

  • he was a bit of a **** and undid everything his dad did 
  • he didn't like the zemstva or trial by jury
  • and he did russification
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How did Alexander III deal with threats to the aut

  • he repressed literally everyone 
  • including everyone
  • tried to kill off the peoples will
  • people were either sent to siberia or executed
  • he also made uni literally impossible to go to unless you were super rich
  • jews were killed too
  • in the long run it made lenin mad and kill off all the romanovs
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Why was Russia economically and socially backward

  • they had lots of resources but didn't use them because they didn't have the machines 
  • they didn't have the machines becaus they were in lots of debt thanks to france and UK
  • they were in debt because they were always borrowing money and getting in to more debt by taking out another loan to pay off their original debt how stupid
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Why did the russian government embark on a program


  • they were so far behind everyone else and poor 
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Whitte

  • he basically created the trans siberian railway so people could move without it taking months 
  • though in 1882 he married a divorced jew so no one liked him anymore
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The radical parties

  • they were formed because no one liked the tsar especially during ww1
  • they leached of the hatred of the tsar and fed off bloody sunday and the lack of bread
  • they created the failed revolution but set russia up for the 17 revolution
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1905 revolution

  • everyone was sick of being hungry and wanted bread so they striked and there was bloody sunday too and they didn't like the tsar
  • it literally set up everything for 1917 even though it was a failure 
  • the army was still loyal at this point 
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Stolypin and the duma

  • stolypin liked hanging people and was the tsars chief minister
  • he reoressed political opponents and traied to bring social and econmic stability to the regime in order to prevent any further outbreak of revolution
  • the duma was a bit **** too because there was four of them that were failing and they were ignored by the tsar they did manage to get primary education more widespread and healt and accident insurence for industrial workers
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WW1

  • they were defeated lots because the only had guns for 5/6 men 
  • Nicholas II also made himself comander in chief which was dumb because he knew nothing and he would get the blame
  • the tsarina was german so people were suspicious and they thought she was being influenced by rasputin
  • there was also lots of food shortages because the food was going to the front
  • they had to quit the war in 2 years because of the revolution because people were fed up with all this war
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Feb revolution

  • workers in petrograd went to the street because they wanted something to comemorate bloody sunday and they wanted food
  • lots more people joined and in a few days there were almost 300,000 workers on strike 
  • the army also left the tsar so he had less support
  • the tsar cant get back to petrograd but thats good because he would've been killed and he then abdicates for himself and his son which is techniclly illegal and his brother also rejects the throne 
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Provisional government

  • they refused to stop the war 
  • dominated by octoberists and kadets and kerensky
  • bolsheviks and mensheviks weren't in it
  • created freedom of the press and released the prisoners and religious freedom and got rid of the okhrana didn't hate the jews
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The return of lenin

  • came back from exhile 
  • promised peace bread and land 
  • he wanted all the marxist stuff
  • wanted to stop the war
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July days and Kornilov affair

  • juky days was a fight for power and tried to get rid of the provisional government but it didn't work marches in petrograd
  • kornilov affiar was when he was supposed to be fighting but ordered his soldiers to the capitol to try and do a coup but failed and the soviet used it against him 
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Bolshevik seizure of power

  • trotsky was strong and good ond ordered the army
  • the whites were unorganised 
  • people liked the bolsheviks
  • whites were everywhere 
  • reds were like a needle 
  • reds also killed the romanovsso the whites had nothing to support
  • lenin became leader
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consolidation of power

  • lenin had to stop the war finally 
  • treaty of brest litovsk - lost lots of land to the central powers
  • lost most of poland latvia and estonia
  • also gave land to peasants 
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civil war

  • lots of russians died
  • lenin had lots of enemies and it was a continuation of october revolution
  • whites again
  • pretty sure i mixed this up with the bolshevik seizure of power
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war comunism

  • grain was taken from peasants for the war effort but they only grew enough for themselves and that was taken too so they starved how stupid
  • all large industries were illegal 
  • private trade was banned
  • lots of people died again
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new economic policy

  • it created the scissor economy
  • kinda worked
  • allowed to employ people and private trade was okay again
  • lenin liked it but later stalin hated it
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Creation of the USSR

  • 1922 - no graphical limitations in the name 
  • lenin became the great dictator
  • but he died and created a power vaccum 
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