What was achieved by the French Campaign of 1511- 1514?



Henry determined to become King of France

Cemented Anglo-Spanish alliance with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, hoping Spain would help him to invade France

Henry recognised that England's military capability was nowhere near that of France, Spain or the HRE

Would not be able to replicate glory of conquests of kings such as Henry V without the aid of other countries

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War against France 1512-1513

Henry struggled in early years due to fathers old ministers, Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fox, who stressed the advantage of avoiding war to preserve English security. 

In 1511, England became part of the Holy League along with Spain, Venice and the HRE in order to weaken France's influence on northern Italy, which the Pope felt threatened by.

In order to impress, Henry protrayed the war to be in the defence of the Church, with parliament granting the necessary money to wage war 1512 and dispatching expeditionary force of 12,000 troops under the control of the Marquis of Dorset to Bayonne.

The plan being that England would gain control of Aquitainein southwest france with the help of Spanish troops

Henry was let down, in that Spain had used it as a diversion to capture Navarre. Whilist waiting for Spanish troops, the became full of illness and Dorset's troops had to withdrawn.

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The Battle of the Spurs 1513

Failure made Henry more determined to attain glory

Henry learnt from his first campaign that he needed to be able to act independently from his so-called allies for aims to be meet

King personally led an army of 30,000 men crossing over the channel to Calais in June 1513

The result of the campaign was the capture of the towns of Therouanne and Tournai, with little french resistance

There was little actual fighting with small French force, in which English propanganda claiming that it was a glorious victory in which the French retreated in such a speed that it was named 'Battle of the Spurs' 

Some French were captured and held prisoner, in which they were brought back to England to add to the prestige

This was organised by Wolsey

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The Battle of Flodden, 1513

A victory of far greater proportion was achieved by an English Army back home under the command of the Earl of Surrey, organised by Catherine

James IV, King of Scotland, tried to take advantage of Henry's absence in France to launch an invasion of England. 

September 1513, the two army confronted, even though clearly outnumbered and in the weaker position, Surrey came through to defeat the Scots.

The Scottish threat was removed as among the dead was James IV himself, leaving Henry's sister Margret regent as James's son, James V was only a boy.

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The Anglo-French Treaty 1514

1514, Henry forced to make peace with France

Ferdinand and Maximillian had lost interest in France and had both been secretly negotiating treaties with Louis XII behind Henry's back

The new Pope, favoured peace over war, and with Henry's money in the way that it was it was a sensible choice to make. 

The treaty gave England possession of Tournai and a claim to the throne of France in which allowed him to recieve pensions

It was also proposed that they create a joint attack on Spain in which Ferdinand would be driven out of Navarre and Castile would be claimed for Catherine. the propsal was mainly made for Henry to show his annoance for being stood up on previous occasions 

The treaty was sealed with the marriage of Henry's younger sister, Mary to Louis XII

This treaty was negociated by Wolsey

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