What is Alchemy?
This is an art or science where two or more base metals are used to try and make gold. This was then used as a treatment or cure for illness.
What is a Zodiac Chart?
A chart which covers all signs of the zodiac and it tells you how to treat people with different star signs e.g. Pisces avoid cutting the feet.
What did they use urine charts for?
These are chart which have different colours on them. The doctor is supposed to match the colour of the urine sample with the chart to work out what is wrong with you.
What is blood letting?
Cutting a vein or using leaches to get rid of illness by getting rid of the ‘bad’ blood.
What was the theory of the four humours?
It is a Greek idea that the body is made up of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
When these humours are in balance you are healthy. When they are out of balance you become ill and they treat you accordingly for example: if they think you have too much blood, they will treat you by blood letting.
What was the Renaissance?
The Renaissance is the name given to the period of time 1500-1700. The word Renaissance means rebirth. During this time there was great interest in learning. Many new inventions were made and people wanted to know more about themselves and the world they live in.
THE RENAISSANCE HELPED IMPROVE MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE.
- Pare was born in France in 1510
- Was a French surgeon – served in the army
- Published ‘The collected works of surgery’ in 1575 à this book was used by doctors/surgeons for many years.
- Showed how wounds could be healed – how ligatures/thread could be used
- Gave effective advice on amputations and setting of fractures
- Pare made artificial limbs and new tools/instruments for surgeons to use.
Describe the work of Harvey?
- Harvey studied medicine in both Cambridge and Padua.
- He worked as a doctor in London and then as a lecturer in anatomy.
- In 1628 published ‘An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart’.
- His ideas replace Galen’s
- He showed blood flows round the body carried away from the heart by arteries & returns through veins
- He proved that the heart acts as a pump recirculating blood.
- Versalius studied medicine in Paris - met artists who were studying skeletons and dissecting bodies to make their paintings more realistic.
- He became a professor of surgery in Italy - beacme a specialist in anatomy.
- In 1545 published 'Fabric of he Human Body' - with detailed illustrations of the human anatomy.
- Work discredited Galen who had been the previous expert on anatomy.
Harvey improved medical knowledge
- Harvey studied at Cambridge & Padua, doctor in London lecturer in anatomy.
- 1628 published ‘An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart’.
- His ideas replace Galen’s.
- He showed blood flows round the body carried away from the heart by arteries & returns through veins, he proved that the heart acts as a pump recirculating blood.
- You need to include the fact that Harvey's work became well known because he was able to publish his discovery in books due to the advances in technology during the Renaissance. Other doctors could read his books and gain infomation.
- Röntgen discovered x-rays when he was experimenting with cathode rays. He found they passed through paper, wood, rubber and human flesh but not through bone or metal – he called them x-rays because he didn’t know what they were. He realised that his discovery was important and published his findings in 1895.
- His discovery caused great excitement & had a great impact on medicine.Within in 6 months of publishing his findings hospitals has installed x-ray machines.
- WWI then confirmed the importance of the x-ray in surgery – Front line hospitals were equipped with x-ray machines & they were in valuable in helping surgeons to remove deeply lodged bullets & shrapnel from wounded soldiers. Rontgen's discovery has led to later scanning methods like ultrasound scanning & MRI.
- If it wasn’t for Röntgen perhaps we would not all have the machines we have today which can see inside the body. It is much better than having to cut open the body to have a look.
discovery of DNA and genetics
- Discovery of DNA one of great medical triumphs since WWII – in 1953 structure of DNA discovered by Watson & Crick.
- DNA is the material of which all genes are composed. Led to a new type of treatment – genetic engineering & a shift in medical research.
- Enabled scientists to find the basis of what was wrong in common diseases but also to think of ways of putting this right.
- New treatment allows genes to be manipulated in order to correct problems in a patients body.
- For example DNA can be made to produce the important protein insulin, for people who suffer from diabetes.
- Genetic engineering can also artificially produce antibodies which seek out & destroy certain cells within the body.
Pasteur and Koch
Pasteur began his work of identifying bacteria c.1870 and he was the first to develop the 'germ theory'. His work was carried on by the German Koch who isolated the bacteria rsponsible for TB, cholera and anthrax. These were important developments in improving medical knowledge at the time. The work of Pasteur and Koch was important beacuse it was carried on by other scientists and this led to the discovery of the causes of many diseases e.g. tetanus, pneumonia, meningitis etc. Koch developed methods of vaccination/immunation against these various diseases. Koch's meticulous research was so impressive that the German gaovernment gave him a full time job and a talented team of bacteriologists inclusing Paul Ehrlich - salvarsan to carry on his research.
scanning & other diagnostic methods
Very important/quite important/not important.
- Discovery in 1895 by Rontgen allowed doctors to study live patients instead of relying on the dissection of dead bodies.
- Ultrasound scanning & other diagnostics aids have enabled doctors to learn even more about the human body without the harmful effects of x-rays
Factors in improving
How far have the factors in improving medical knowledge changed from the middle ages to the present day?
Zodiac charts and the theory of the four humours in the later middle ages were built apon by experiments in dissection and anatomy in the Renaissance period. These were an important starting point in aquiring medical knowledge. Dissection by vesalius and surgery by Pare were foundations for improved medical knowledge. They provided an insight into the working of the human body. The invention of printing enabled these ideas to spread to a wider audience. Harvey's work on the circulation of the blood made a further contribution to improving medical knowledge. The 'germ theory' in the late nineteenth century and the discovery of x-rays have been further factors in improving medical knowledge. Twentieth century developments like scanning and other diagnostic methods, DNA and gentics have developed medical knowledge even further. The main