WHAT CAUSED THE 1905 REVOLUTION? (RUSSIA)

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BLOODY SUNDAY (SHORT TERM)

Palace guards shot peaceful protestors who were asking for better working conditions and freedom of speech, press, religion and association.

This showed the autocracy as harsh and uncaring, destroying the image of Tsar as father of the people. This sparked anger as many people were disgusted by the deaths

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POOR LIVING CONDITIONS (LONG TERM)

A sucession of poor harvests meant famine was a big problem and made life harder for peasants, as well as poor housing and medical treatment.

This made peasants feel more unhappy as they found it increasingly difficult to feed their families, and led to people looking to radical groups to improve their lives.

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INFLATION (SHORT TERM)

Inflation meant that peoples money could buy them less, which meant many people could'nt afford to eat properly or buy essential items.

This increased poverty and meant that more people felt hard-done by, many of these people blamed the Tsar for failing to stop Inflation.

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RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR (SHORT TERM)

The Russo-Japanese war was fought in 1904-05 but was lost due to poor organisation, long travelling distances and Japans superior technology.

The war sparked bitterness towards the monarchy because it seemed as if the Tsar was spending money on pointless wars when the ordinary people were already facing hardships.

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POOR LEADER (SHORT TERM)

Nicholas was seen as a poor leader who had no idea how to run a country, as seen when he started the Russo-Japanese war.

The people of Russia saw him as a weak man that represented an outdated and out-of-touch autocracy.

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SERF U-TURN (LONG TERM)

Alexander II freed the serfs and introduced reforms improving he lives of peasants, these were then taken away by Alexander III who introduced opressive policies

This made the peasants (majority of the population) angry because they had been given hope of a free life only to have it taken away.

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POTEMKIN (SHORT TERM)

A navy ship called the Potemkin mutinied in 1905, although the mutiny did not spread to any other ships.

People were inspired by this mutiny, which showed them that the government was failing and vulnerable.

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DISCRIMINATION (LONG TERM)

The minority groups in Russia had faced discrimination for a long time, either due to race, disability or religion.

This contributed to the feeling of opression in Russia and made many people feel unwanted by the current government.

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CENSORSHIP (LONG TERM)

There was widespread censorship of newspapers and people were not allowed to speak freely and had to be a part of the Russian orthodox church.

This increased hatred for the government because people felt as if their rights were being taken away and that they were being forced to live a certain way.

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RUSSIFICATION (LONG TERM)

Russification was the emphasis of everything Russian. People were forced to have Russian names, they had to learn to speak read and write in Russian and the teaching of al other languages were stopped.

This made people feel angry because they were being forced to support a country to which they werent loyal and didnt believe in.

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NEGATIVE INFLUENCE (SHORT TERM)

Nicholas II's advisers included his tutor Pobedonostsev who opposed all reforms, his German wife and Rasputin, who was a mystic from Siberia.

Ordinary Russian people felt betrayed when he married a German, as she was seen as arrogant and Russia and Germany were enemies. Rasputin was viewed by many as an evil man who used the royal family to his advantage. People thought the Tsar was being influenced too much by these people.

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