WHAT WAS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FOREIGN SUPPORT FOR THE PRETENDERS

Support from Ireland

Lambert Simnel

  • Provided him with troops and base to launch invasion
  • Supported him for political survival against opposition
  • Many Irish nobility and gentry - English decendants, Anglo-Irish rules e.g. Fitzgerald Earls of Kildare - taken opportunity to increase hold on Irish govt.
  • Fitzgeralds of Kildare = Lord Deputy
  • Forced to accept oath of loyalty from Henry - allowed to remain deputy in Ireland

Perkin Warbeck

  • Kildare watched from sidelines - removed from post
  • Henry sent Sir Edward Poynings in 1494 - repel attack of Warbeck in Waterford in 1495
  • Ordered arrest of Kildare on suspision of treason - imprisoned in England until 1496
  • Poynings Law (1495) - no Irish parliaments could be summoned unless king gave consent, not allowed to pass any laws until approved by English ruler
  • Able to persuade Irish parliament to pass an Act that put them under direct control of monarch
  • Kildare reappointed deputy in August 1496 - Warbeck = no support in 1497
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Support from Burgundy

Anglo-Burgundian relationship

  • Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy - sister of Edward IV and Richard III - heir = Philip (minor)
  • Henry VII prepared to put dynastic security ahead of trade (Antwerp port = wool)

Role of Margaret of Burgundy

  • Offered protection and support to Yorkist plotters
  • Warbeck - used connection with Holy Roman Emperor recognised at rightful king in 1493, prepared to back him with an armed force in 1495
  • 1493 - Philip took control of Burgundy - still support
  • Henry enforced trade embargo - 1494 Philip but own embargo on English goods
  • 1496 - signed Intercursus Magnus (agreed to lift trade embargo)
  • Margaret continued to support Warbeck although banned
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Support from France

Relations deteriorated

  • Scotland and France in 'Auid Alliance'
  • Fate of Duchy of Brittany - ruled by series of dukes - French kings always claimed right to succeed throne
  • 1487 - Duke of Brittany died, young daughter heirress - France invade, Henry forced to act
  • 1489 - sent 3000 troops (agreed to send 6000) - by 1491 France controlled Brittany
  • Tried to raise taxation in 1489 - revolt in Yorkshire

How Henry dealt with threat from France

  • Launced invasion on France in Oct 1492 after arrival of Warbeck - marched into Boulongne - beseige
  • Charles VIII agreed to negotiate - planning invasion on Italy
  • Treaty of Etaples (1492) - restored English prestige - Charles agreed not to harbour Henry's enemies, Henry got annual 'pension', stopped potential threat
  • 1494 - France entered Italian Wars
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Support from Scotland

Relations deteriorated

  • State of near civil-war from c1482
  • James III determined to forge alliance with England - negotiated 3 year truce in 1486
  • James IV 15yrs when he succeeded in 1488 - brought country under control by 1493 - renewed truce
  • 1495 - welcomed Warbeck to Scotland - prepared to arrange marriage between him and cousin, Lady Catherine Gordon
  • 1496 - Warbeck invaded England - short lived and unsuccessful
  • Parliament agreed grant of taxation - used to fight Scots
  • Tried to negotiate marriage alliance between James IV and Henry's daughter Margaret

Threat didn't continue after 1497

  • James had grown tired of supporting Warbeck - left on 6th July 1497 on boat paid by him
  • September 1497 - James and Henry agreed to 7 year Truce of Ayton
  • Married Princess Margaret in 1503
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