- Created by: ConnieWillis
- Created on: 31-01-18 13:09
Political unrest and opposition: Trade Union activ
- Late 70's were a tricky time for NP as the economic boom of the 60's was followed by the oil crisis in 1973
- Party also faced continuing opposition and internal divisions
- Black workers made up the majority of gold and uranium miners as well as coal which was SA's main export
- There were many white households who had domestic servants (1.5 mil farms and 1.6 in industry)
- This meant that when black workers went on strike, it could hurt white people
- Examples of strikes: Black workers at PUTCO ( a bus company between townships to workplaces) in 1971. Migrant workers in a brick factory near Durban in 1973 - spread to 150 other factories in the area.
- These strikes triggered former unionists from the 60's to build new unions.
- They focused on wages and conditions - not a wider political rhetoric.
- Examples of unions: Sweet, Food and Allied Workers Union - KwaZulu-Natal (big for sugar)
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ANC Supporting within SA.
- Winnie Mandela big figure
- COSAS (Congress of South African Students) launched in 1979 to coordinate school protests
- Leader of COSAS = Eprahim Mogale
- He pushed COSAS to commit to the Freedom Charter (Charterists = in support of FC)
- 1980 - Sunday Post launched the 'Free Nelson Mandela' campaign
- Lots of civic organisations on a local level in townships. They were fighting against rent increases, poor education and forced removal in rural areas etc....
- SAAWU (South African Allied Workers Union) went on strike at Rowntrees sweet factory in Durban
- They openly declared support of FC and recruited Mk members in secret
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- In 1953, the Liberal party was established
- In 1959, some of the more liberal members of the United Party (NP's biggest opposition) split away from the UP and formed the 'Progressive Party'
- PP = opposed to apartheid --> morally wrong but also it was damaging the economy as needed more skilled black workers
- In 1974, they had 7 seats
- 1978 - The UP splintered again - Progressive Federal Party
- PFP became NP's main opposition in parliament
- Had a charismatic leader (Frederik Slabbert)
- He tried to reach out to black leaders (e.g. Buthelezi) --> too liberal for most whites
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Trouble in the Bantustans
- Vorster (and later Botha) put a lot of money into the bantustan policy
- There were 4 B's that accepted their independence
- Gov wanted to see them as independent countries
- Lots of money needed for it to work though, usually wasted on forced relocation and bureaucracies etc...
- Some positives: 50% of the budget went to education, health, roads etc...
- Buthelezi (homeland leader in KwaZulu) refused to accept independence
- New homeland unis were set up (Turfloop and Fort Hare) and were key centres for political dissidence - key places for Mk recruitment
- They hated the homelands that had accepted independence as often the leaders gained personal financial benefits --> benefiting off apartheid
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National Party Division
- Vorster was in power from 1966-78
- He had always won quite comfortably
- In the 70's however, two groups within the National Party were starting to emerge.
- 1) The Verligte (more liberal)
- 2) Verkrampte (more conservative)
- After the Soweto Uprising, the Cape Nationalist paper said that black urbanisation was inevitable - some whites said that the lack of skilled black workers was holding them back in business
- The Verligtes said that if there were better training and recognition for black trade unions, then the SA economy would benefit
- Vorster sided with the Verkrampte
- He also wanted a conservative successor and so gave secret money to Mulder to run a propaganda campaign to ensure his win.
- Was found that Mulder's funds were corrupt and when everyone found out, people couldn't ignore it. He still ran against Botha and tried to deny involvement
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- There was a recession in the mid-1970's due to the global oil crisis in 1973
- SA badly affected as they imported all of their oil
- Nationalists set up a state-owned company called SASOL to get oil from coal - had about 1/3 of all oil this way by 1980's, but other 2/3's very expensive
- A rise in the price of gold helped but industry stopped growing as skilled white workers were too expensive and black workers restricted by lack of training etc...
- Population was also increasing (whites from 3-5 million, Africans 11-29mil)
- 80% of SA was rural land and many black workers lived there. However the growing farm sizes, greater efficiency and mechanisation reduced the need for workers.
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- Botha wasn't a strong verligte but was committed to the need for reform
- His aim was to keep apartheid and use repression when necessary
- Wanted to reform the economy and constitution
- Botha's rule (1978-89) coincided with Reagan's (1979-90) and Thatchers (79-90)
- This meant international pressure on SA was far less as both conservative and anti-comm
- NP was dependant on helping poor white people as living standards for white people had increased under apartheid. Felt could give some concessions.
- Recognised trade unions - De Lang commission (1981) suggested gradually spending more money on black education
- Softened the language of race - continued to promote homeland policy but knew African Urbanisation was irreversible and that the whites should create opportunities for the Black Urban Elite --> Black Urban councils
- National Football League deracialised --> Ideologically significant
- Constitutional changes in 1984: more power to executive and president (Botha president not PM) and less to parliament --> easier for minorities to get positions of power
- Tricameral parliment est (Indian, White and Coloured) --> Symbolic shift
- Triggered a split of verkamptes into a new conservative party - NP's new biggest opposition
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