What problems did Liberal Italy have by 1912


North-South divide

Northern Italy was increasingly industralised and prosperous while Suthern Italy remained largely argricultural and experienced poverty which increased divide. 

Illiteracy was higher in teh South (80% of the population was illliterate)

The adaptation of more modern argriculturial techniques increased the number of landless argricultural labourers. Northern Italy caused society to become less stable and increased political division within the region 

In central and Southern Italy they were open to more argricultural problems and disasters than the north 

Deforistation - Farmland was vunerable to erosion and poor quality crops would not grow 

Earthquakes, eruptions and tidal vawes. there were financial support but they were slow and led to the Southern to despise Liberal goverement. It damaged ecomony and lives 

Disease blightened the population and brought was a regular feature. 

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Rates of migration and emigration were high damaging ecomony 

Italy's industrial economy was always far behind of European rivals 

Industralisation was uneven and localised 

Machinery had to e imported 

lack of key resources - Steel and Iron 

Communications transport and energy sources were underdeveloped in most areas 

Labour force was large but also unskilled 

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The Church

The Catholic church was hostile to the new talian state 

In 1870 the land of the Vatican were reduced to a small area within Rome pope Puis IX shut himslef away in the Vatican in protest against the reduction in papal power and forbade Catholics to enter elections.

Most catholics withdrew from Political protests

None of the Popes acknowledged the existance of the kingdom of Italy until1929 

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Liberals were skilled at creating coalitions and operating within the system of Transformismo 

As political Parties were so weak goverements were framed into fractions that had come togrther to for a coalition goverement. Led to significant degree of instability in Italian political life. 

Coalitions could easily fall apart and this led to a sucession of short-term goverements 

Between 1870-1915 more then twenty different goverements in power 

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Wanted to gain overseas colonies to boost its International status and money. They suffered humiliating defets in Tunisia and Adowa in 1890.

Itaky's atempt at colonisation were distargerous. Italy's defeat to Abyssinian forces at the battle of Adowa was a humiliation that trmporaly halted Italy's colonial abitions. Itay had to accept Abyssinian inderpendance. Italy had to pay 1 milllion lire in war reperations.

In 1882 Italy joined a triple alliance with Germany and Austra-Hungary. 

Italy intrests challanged over the years and it more closely wih Britian and France 

Triple alliance partners saw it as an untrustworthy minor partner 

Italy's entry in WW1 had a dramatic impact on these issues and politcal divisions deepened 

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