What are the social and economic issues associated with urban change? - Bristol, Dhaka.

HideShow resource information

Key words

What is economic globalisation? -The process by which the economies of the world are moving closer together and becoming more intergrated.

What does post-industrial mean? - A term used to describe a set of changes and processes at work since the 1970's that have transformed cities, economies and societies.

What is the cycle of poverty? - The idea that pverty and deprivation are transmitted from one generation to the next, thus creasing a self-perpetuating circle.

What is multiple deprivation? - A term signalling the fact that deprivation is usually a matter of lagging behind in a number of related aspects of life, such as employment, housing, services and health.

What is disaffected mean? - A feeling of being unjustly treated by, and isolated from, society.

What is polarisation? - A widening gap between extremes, as for examples, between rich and poor.

What are transnational corporations? - Large companies operating in more than one country and typically involved in a wide range of economic activites.

What is an informal economy?- Made of activites bit officially recognised but are undertaken by the poor in order to survive.

What is deprivation? - When a persons well being falls below a level generally regarded as an acceptable minimum.

1 of 4


Cause of decline: Caused by shift in manufacturing from MEDC's to LEDC's, since they can make items cheaper.

Cause of growth: Improvement in economy due to more tertiary sector forms of employment such as banking, finance and insurance. 80% of Bristols economy is now based on tertiary sector.

Impacts of decline:

  • Loss of employment.
  • More brownfield sites like temple meads.
  • Urban decay - decline in jobs, decline in services, infrastructure deterioration, economically prosperous move away, increasing decay, loss of investment confidence.

Impacts of growth:

  • Strain on transport system with many roads and railways highly conjested during peak times.
  • Most tertiary workers are from surrounding south-west and are commuters, meaning more traffic.
  • Most tertiary workers from surrounding areas also means less oppurtunities for people who live in the inner city (polorisation). People from inner city ring are disaffected as they lack oppurtunities.
  • International migration from countries like Bangladesh, on arrival, these people have little money and can only afford poor accomidation in inner city areas, here ghettos form, causing ethnic segregation.
2 of 4


Causes of urban growth: Global shift in manufacturing has caused an influx of TNC's into the country due to its low employment costs.

Causes of urban decay: Dhaka has a rapidly increasing population, this is caused by a very fertile and young population, also caused by rural-urban migration. 

Impacts of urban growth:

  • Most of the manufacturing industry relies on sweatshops which have very poor working conditions (affecting health) and very low pay (as low as 20p an hour).
  • Higher demand for services such as transport, more rickshaws (half a million involved) has caused conjestion of busy, inadiquate roads.

Impacts of urban decay:

  • Rate of population growth outstripping rate of new jobs, causing 25% unemployment, people turn to the informal economy (e.g. begging, petty crime, prostitution) Informal employment also forces children to work from dawn till dusk at 12p a day to survive. They are also exposed to harmful chemicals and poor working conditions. 
  • Lack of recources to sustain huge population resulting in malnurishment. 
3 of 4

Bristol, Dhaka extra

Other impacts of urban growth in Bristol:

  • Terraced housing left behind after industrialisation are in disrepair and come lack basic utilities such as water and sewage services. 
  • Lack of compulsry education means few schools were ever built.

Other impacts of urban growth in Dhaka:

  • Services cant keep up with rate of population increase (x3 in 30 years to 12 million), 2/3 households dont have water supplied. Only city in Bangladesh with a waterborne sewage system ( serving 25% of the population), this causes deseise (Dhaka has the highest rate of deaths from infectious deseise of any city in Asia).
4 of 4


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Rural and urban challenges and regeneration resources »