What is economic globalisation? -The process by which the economies of the world are moving closer together and becoming more intergrated.
What does post-industrial mean? - A term used to describe a set of changes and processes at work since the 1970's that have transformed cities, economies and societies.
What is the cycle of poverty? - The idea that pverty and deprivation are transmitted from one generation to the next, thus creasing a self-perpetuating circle.
What is multiple deprivation? - A term signalling the fact that deprivation is usually a matter of lagging behind in a number of related aspects of life, such as employment, housing, services and health.
What is disaffected mean? - A feeling of being unjustly treated by, and isolated from, society.
What is polarisation? - A widening gap between extremes, as for examples, between rich and poor.
What are transnational corporations? - Large companies operating in more than one country and typically involved in a wide range of economic activites.
What is an informal economy?- Made of activites bit officially recognised but are undertaken by the poor in order to survive.
What is deprivation? - When a persons well being falls below a level generally regarded as an acceptable minimum.
Cause of decline: Caused by shift in manufacturing from MEDC's to LEDC's, since they can make items cheaper.
Cause of growth: Improvement in economy due to more tertiary sector forms of employment such as banking, finance and insurance. 80% of Bristols economy is now based on tertiary sector.
Impacts of decline:
- Loss of employment.
- More brownfield sites like temple meads.
- Urban decay - decline in jobs, decline in services, infrastructure deterioration, economically prosperous move away, increasing decay, loss of investment confidence.
Impacts of growth:
- Strain on transport system with many roads and railways highly conjested during peak times.
- Most tertiary workers are from surrounding south-west and are commuters, meaning more traffic.
- Most tertiary workers from surrounding areas also means less oppurtunities for people who live in the inner city (polorisation). People from inner city ring are disaffected as they lack oppurtunities.
- International migration from countries like Bangladesh, on arrival, these people have little money and can only afford poor accomidation in inner city areas, here ghettos form, causing ethnic segregation.
Causes of urban growth: Global shift in manufacturing has caused an influx of TNC's into the country due to its low employment costs.
Causes of urban decay: Dhaka has a rapidly increasing population, this is caused by a very fertile and young population, also caused by rural-urban migration.
Impacts of urban growth:
- Most of the manufacturing industry relies on sweatshops which have very poor working conditions (affecting health) and very low pay (as low as 20p an hour).
- Higher demand for services such as transport, more rickshaws (half a million involved) has caused conjestion of busy, inadiquate roads.
Impacts of urban decay:
- Rate of population growth outstripping rate of new jobs, causing 25% unemployment, people turn to the informal economy (e.g. begging, petty crime, prostitution) Informal employment also forces children to work from dawn till dusk at 12p a day to survive. They are also exposed to harmful chemicals and poor working conditions.
- Lack of recources to sustain huge population resulting in malnurishment.
Bristol, Dhaka extra
Other impacts of urban growth in Bristol:
- Terraced housing left behind after industrialisation are in disrepair and come lack basic utilities such as water and sewage services.
- Lack of compulsry education means few schools were ever built.
Other impacts of urban growth in Dhaka:
- Services cant keep up with rate of population increase (x3 in 30 years to 12 million), 2/3 households dont have water supplied. Only city in Bangladesh with a waterborne sewage system ( serving 25% of the population), this causes deseise (Dhaka has the highest rate of deaths from infectious deseise of any city in Asia).