Welsh Grammar

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Fy Mod i: That I

Fy mod i that I....

Dy fod ti... That you

Ei fod e... that he

Ei bod hi... That she

Eich bod chi... That you (lot)

Ein bod ni... That we

Eu bod nhw... That they

Bod Sam... That Sam

Bod y plant.... That the children

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Bydda i- Future Tense

Bydda i- Future Tense

Bydda i- I will be Fydda i ddim- I will not

Byddi di- You will be Fydda di ddim- you will not

Bydd e- he will be Fydd e ddim- he will not

Bydd hi- she will be Fydd hi ddim- she will not

Byddwn ni- we will be Fyddwn ni ddim- we will not

Byddwch chi- you (lot) will be Fyddwch chi ddim- you will not

Byddan nhw- they will be Fyddan nhw ddim- they will not

 

 

 

 

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Baswn i Conditional Tense

Baswn i- I would be

Baswn i- I would be Faswn i ddim- I wouldn't be

Baset ti- you would be Faset ti ddim- you wouldn't be

Basai e- he would be Fasai e ddim- he wouldn't be

Basai hi- she would be Fasai hi ddim- she wouldn't be

Basen ni- we would be Fasen ni ddim- we wouldn't be

Basech chi- you would be Fasech chi ddim- you wouldn't be

Basen nhw- They would be Fasen nhw ddim- they wouldn't be

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Roeddwn i- Past tense

Roeddwn i- Past tense

Roeddwn i- I was doeddwn i ddim- I wasn't

Roeddet ti- you were doedddet ti ddim- you weren't

Roedd hi- she was Doedd hi ddim- she wasn't

Roedd e- he was Doedd e ddim- he wasn't

Roedden ni- we were Doedden ni ddim- we weren't

Roeddech chi- you were Doeddech chi ddim- you weren't

Roedden nhw- they were Doedden nhw ddim- they weren't

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Rydw i- present tense

Rydw i- present tense.

Rydw i- I am dydw i ddim- I am not

Rwyt ti- you are Dwyt ti ddim- you are not

Mae e- he is Dydy e ddim- he is not

Mae hi- she is Dydy hi ddim- she is not

Rydyn ni- we areDydyn ni ddim- we are not.

Maen nhw- they are dydyn nhw ddim- they aren't

Rydych chi- you are dydych chi ddim- you aren't

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Link words

Link Words

Yn ogystal a hyn- as well as this                    Yn glir- clearly

Er enghaifft- for example                                Mae'r erthygl yn dweud- the article says

Hefyd- also                                                      Serch hynny, er hynny- even though despite that

Ar y cyfan- on the whole                                 Yn bersonnel- personally

Yn gyntaf- firstly                                               Mae rhaid i cytuno- I have to agree

Yn amlwg-Obviously                                        Crynhoi- to summarise

Dywedodd Erthygl bod- the article said          Yn anffoddus- unfortunately

Yn ol- According to                                            Beth bynnag, fodd bynnag, sut bynnag- howevver

I gloi- to conclude                                              Felly- so/ therefore

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Link words #1

Link words.

Yn ffodus- Fortunately

Yr ail bwynt ydy- The second point is

I ddechrau- to start

Efalli- perhaps

Ar y llaw arall- on the other hand

Ar un llaw- on one hand

I orffen- to finish

Rydw i'n anghytuno- I disagree

Rydw i'n cytuno- I agree

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Rhedeg Arddodiaid

AR:                   WRTH:                   AM:                           AT:

Arna(f) i            Wrtho(f) i                 Amdana(f) fi              Ata(f) i

Arnat ti              Wrthot ti                  Amdanat ti                Atat ti

Arno fe/fo          Wrtho fe/ o             Amdano fe/ o             Ato fe/ o

Arni hi               Wrthi hi                   Amdani hi                  Ati hi

Arnon ni            Wrthon ni                Amdanon ni               Aton ni

Arnoch chi         Wrthoch chi            Amdanoch chi           Atoch chi

Arnyn nhw         Wrthyn nhw            Amdanyn nhw          Atyn nhw

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Rhedeg Arddrodiaid #1

O:                          DRWY                       RHAG                    I

Ohono(f) i              Drw(ydd)o(f) i            Rhag(dd)of i            I mi/ fi

Ohonot ti               Dryw(ydd)ot ti            Rhag(dd)ot ti           I ti

Ohono fe/ fo          Drwyddo fe/ fo           Rhagddo fe/ fo       Iddo fe/ fo

Ohoni hi                 Drwyddi hi                 Rhagddi hi             Iddi hi

Ohonon ni             Drw(ydd)on ni           Rhag(dd)on ni         I ni

Ohonoch chi          Drw(ydd)och chi        Rhag(dd)och chi     I chi

Ohonyn nhw          Drwyddyn nhw          Rhagddyn nhw       Iddyn nhw

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Rhedeg Arddodiaid #2

YN:                     RHAG:                      HEB:

Yn(dd)o(f) i         Rhag(dd)o(f) i           Heb(dd)of i

Yn(dd)ot ti          Rhag(dd)ot ti             Heb(dd)ot ti

Ynddo fe/ fo       Rhagddo fe/ fo           Hebddo fe/ fo

Ynddi hi              Rhagddi hi                 Hebbi hi

Yn(dd)on ni         Rhag(dd)on ni           Heb(dd)on ni

Yn(dd)och chi     Rhag(dd)och chi        Heb(dd)och chi

Ynddyn nhw       Rhagddyn nhw           Hebdyn nhw

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Rhedeg Adrdrodiaid #3

DROS                               RHWNG                      MO:

Dros(t)o(f) i                              Rhyng(dd)o(f) i                  Mo(ho)no(f) i

Dros(t)ot ti                                Rhyng(dd)ot ti                   Mo(ho)not ti

Drosto fe/ fo                             Rhyngddo fe/ fo                 Mo(ho)no fe/ fo

Drosti hi                                    Rhyngddi hi                      Mo(ho)not ti

Dros(t)on ni                              Rhyng(dd)on ni                 Mo(ho)ni hi

Dros(t)och chi                          Rhyng(dd)och chi              Mo(ho)noch chi

Drostyn nhw                            Rhyngddyn nhw                 Mo(ho)nyn nhw

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Treiglad Meddal

Ar ol pob un o'r arddodiaid hyn: am, ar at, gan, heb, wrth, heb, i, o, pan, dan, dros, drwy, hyd.

Er enghaifft: am bedwar o'r gloch, i weld y gem, o Gaerdydd, i Loegr, wrth gerdded, dan draed, trwy defnyddio, ar ddydd llun.

P = B              LL = L

T  = D             M = F

C = G             RH = R

B = F              G = /

D = DD

Y + feminine singular noun, soft mutation e.e Y cerdd = Y gerdd.

Ei (his) e.e. ei frawd.

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Trwynol

  1. Yn + nasal mutation, yn + place name.

    Yng Nghymru.

    Ym Mrynamon.

  2. Fy causes nasal mutation

    Fy nhad.

    Fy mhen.

G - Ng            P - Mh

D - N              T - Nh

B - M

C - Ngh

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Llaes (aspirate)

Llaes (aspirate mutation)

  1. A (and) ci a chath, mam a thad.

  2. Ei (her) Ei thad- her father. And her- a’i

P - Ph

T - Th

C - Ch

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Impersonal #1

Impersonal 'ir' present tense

Edrychir - Edrych (to look)                   Darllenir - Darllen (to read)

Clywir - Clywed (to hear)                      Gwelir - Gweld (to see)

Dywedir - Dywedu (to say)                   Cyhoeddir - Cyhoeddi (to publish/ announce)

Credir - Credu (to believe)                    Honnir- honni (to assert to/ to claim)

Cynhelir - Cynnal (to hold)                    Ysgrifennir - Ysgrifennu (to write)

Lledir - Lladd (to die)                             Gellir - gallu (to be able to)

Gelwir - Galw (to demand)

e.e. Ysgrifennir y golofn goginio gan Jamie Oliver

Nid edrychir ar Eastenders yn ein ty ni.

Gwelir llawer o wiwerod llwyd yng Nghymru. 

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Impersonal #2

Berfau afreolaidd:

Eir - mynd (to go)

Eir a - mynd a (to take)

Deuir - dod (to come from)

Ceir - cael (to have)

Deuir a - dod a (to bring)

Gwneir - Gwneud (to do/ to make)

e.e. ceir llawer o fargeinion yn syth ar ol y Nadolig.

Ceir problemau cymdeithasol o ganlyniad i ddiweithdra.

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Impersonal past tense #1

Edrych (to look) = edrychwyd                  Cyhoeddi (to publish/ announce) = Cyhoeddwyd

Clywed (to hear) = Clywyd                       Cynnal (to hold) = cynhaliwyd

Dweud (to say) = Dywedwyd                    Galw (to demand) = Galwyd

Darllen (to read) = Darllenwyd                  Lladd (to die) = Lladdwyd

Gweld (to see) = Gwelwyd                       Credu (to believe) = Credwyd

Honni (to claim) = honnwyd                      Ysgrifennu (to write) = Ysgrifennwyd

***

Mynd (to go) = aethpwyd/ aed                         Dod a (to bring) = daethpwyd a

Mynd a (to take) = aethpwyd a/ aed a             Cael (to have) = Cafwyd/ caed

Dod (to come from) = daethpwyd                   Gwneud (to do/ to make) = Gwnaethpwyd/ Gwnaed

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Time Factors

Past:                                          Future:                                      Present:

Ddoe (yesterday)                             Yfory (tomorrow)                               Heddiw (today)

Wythnos ddiwethaf (last week)     Heno (tonight)                                   Nawr (now)

Neithiwr (last night)                        Wythnos nesaf (next week)             Bob dydd (everyday)

Ym mis medi (in september)          Ym mis medi (in September)            Bob wythnos (every week)

Y bore 'ma (this morning)               Mewn pum munud (in five minutes)

Cyn (before)                                   Erbyn (by)

Yn ystod yr haf (during the summer)

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Command words:

Command words:

Tell: Dywedwch        Ask: Gofynnwch                Thank: Diolchwch

Tell her: wrthi hi       Ask him: Iddo fe                Thank her Iddi hi

Tell him: wrtho fe     Ask her: Iddi hi                   Thank him: iddo fe

 ***

Cerdded - cerddwch               Gyrru - Gyrrwch

Rhedeg - rhedwch                   Darllen - Darllenwch

Edrych - Edrychwch               Siarad - Siaradwch

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Y perffaith

Y persennol                 ->                       Y perffaith

Yn                                                           Wedi

Mae Paul yn Ysgrifennu (paul is writing) - mae Paul wedi ysgrifennu (Paul has written)

Rydych chi'n siarad  (you are speaking) -rydych chi wedi siarad (you have spoken)

Mae nhw'n gwrando (they are listening) maen nhw'n wedi gwrando  (they have listened)

Dydy Paul ddim yn ysgrifennu (Paul isn't writing) Dydy paul ddim wedi ysgrifennu (Paul hasn't written)

Dydych chi ddim yn siarad (you are not speaking) Dydych chi ddim wedi siarad (you have not spoken)

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Ffurfiau afreolaidd

CAEL (TO HAVE)                                        MYND (to go)

Ces i- I had                                                  Es i- I went

Cest ti- You had                                          Est ti- you went

Cafodd e/ o- he/ it had                                Aeth e/ o- he/ it went

Cafodd hi- she/ it had                                 Aeth hi- she went

Cafodd Sam- Sam had                               Aeth Sam- Sam went

Cafodd y plant- the children had               Aeth  y merched- the girls went 

Cawson ni- we had                                    Aethon ni- we went

Cawsoch chi- You had                              Aethoch chi- you went

Cawson nhw- they had                              Aethon nhw

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Ffurfiau afreolaidd #1

GWNEUD (TO DO/ TO MAKE)            DOD (TO COME)

Gwnes i- I did/ I made                                     Des i- I came

Gwnest ti- you did/ you made                        Dest ti- you came

Gwnaeth e/o- he did/ he made                       Daeth e/ o- he came

Gwnaeth hi- she did/ she made                     Daeth hi- she came

Gwnaeth Sam-Sam did/ Sam made              Daeth Sam- Sam came

Gwnaeth y plant- the children did/ made      Daeth y plant- the children came

Gwnaethon ni- we did/ we made                    Daethon ni- we came

Gwnaethoch chi you did/ you made              Daethoch chi- you came

Gwwnaethon nhw they did/ they made         Daethon nhw- they came

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Yr Amodol: Byddwn i

Byddwn i

Byddwn i- I would (be)                               Fyddwn i ddim- I wouldn't (be)

Byddet ti- you would (be)                               Fyddet ti ddim- you wouldn't (be)

Byddai e/o- he would (be)                        Fyddai e/ o ddim- he wouldn't (be)

Byddai hi- she would (be)                         Fyddai hi ddim- she wouldn't (be)

Byddai Sam- Sam would (be)                   Fyddai Sam ddim- Sam wouldn't (be) 

Byddai'r merched- The girls would (be)   Fydden ni ddim- we wouldn't (be)

Bydden ni- we would (be)                               Fyddech chi ddim- you wouldn't (be)

Byddech chi- you would (be)                   Fydden nhw ddim-  they wouldn't (be)

Bydden nhw- they would (be)    Fyddai'r bechgen ddim- the boys wouldn't (be)

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Pe- if

Pe byddwn i                            If I were                                Pe baswn i

Pe byddet ti                             If you were                           Pe baset ti

Pe byddai e/ o                         If he were                             Pe basai e/ o

Pe byddai hi                            If she were                           Pe basai hi

Pe byddai Sam                       If Sam was                            Pe basai Sam

Pe byddai'r plant                     If the children                       Pe basai'r plant

Pe bydden ni                          If we were                              Pe basen ni

Pe byddech chi                           If you were                            Pe basech cch

Pe bydden nhw                       If they were                           Pe basen nhw

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Dylwn i- I should

Dylwn i - I should                               Ddylwn i ddim  - I shouldn't

Dylet ti - you should                           Ddylet ti ddim - you shouldn't

Dylai e/ o -He should                         Ddylai e/ o ddim - he shouldn't

Dylai hi - she should                           Ddylai hi ddim - she shouldn't  

Dylai Sam - Sam should                     Ddylai Sam ddim - Sam shouldn't

Dylai'r bobl - the people should           Ddylai'r plant ddim - the children shouldn't

Dylech chi - you should                        Ddylech chi ddim - you shouldn't

Dylen nhw - they should                      Dylen nhw ddim- they shouldn't

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Gallwn i- I could

Gallwn i - I could                                         Allwn i ddim - I couldn't

Gallet ti - you could                                    Allet ti ddim - you couldn't

Gallai e/ o  - he could                                 Allai e/ o ddim - he couldn't

Gallai hi - she could                                   Allai hi ddim - she couldn't

Gallai Sam - Sam could                             Allai Sam ddim - Sam couldn't

Gallai'r bobl - the people could                 Allai'r bobl ddim - the people couldn't

Gallen ni - we could                                   Allen ni ddim - we couldn't

Gallech chi - you could                              Allech chi ddim- you couldn't

Gallen nhw - they could                             Allen nhw ddim- they couldn't

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Hoffwn i- I would like

Hoffwn i - I would like                                          Hoffwn i ddim - I wouldn't like

Hoffet ti - you would like                                            Hoffet ti ddim - you wouldn't like

Hoffai e/ o - he would like                                          Hoffai e/ o ddim - he wouldn't like

Hoffai hi - she would like                                     Hoffai hi ddim - She wouldn't like

Hoffai Sam - Sam would like                         Hoffai Sam ddim - Sam wouldn't like

Hoffai'r bobl - the people would like    Hoffai'r bobl ddim - the people wouldn't like

Hoffen ni - we would like                                            Hoffen ni ddim - we wouldn't like

Hoffech chi  - you would like                                Hoffech chi ddim - you wouldn't like

Hoffen nhw - they would like

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Y gorffennol cryno

Cerddais i - I walked                                 Cod  - Cododd e

Cerddaist ti - you walked                          Dawnsio - Dawnsion ni

Cerddodd e/ o - he/it walked                         Rhedeg - Rhedodd y plentyn

Cerddodd hi -she walked                        Prynu - Prynon ni

Cerddodd Tom -Tom walked                  Ffonio - Ffoniais i

Cerddodd y bobl -the people walked     Dysgu Dysgon nhw

Cerddon ni -we walked                           Yfed - Yfoch chi

Cerddoch chi -you walked

Cerddon nhw -they walked

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Cael (to have)

Cael- to have/ receive e.g. to have breakfast, to have a new phone, e.e. rydw i'n cael ffon newydd, rydw i'n cael brecwast yn y bore ma.

Wedi- to have (past tense) e.g. I have passed, have you remembered, e.e. Rydw i wedi pasio, wyt ti wedi cofio?

Gyda/ gan- to have something possession, e.g. I've got, e.e. mae chwaer gyda fi.

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Bod + Y

Bod = Present/ past tense.

Bod + Y = Conditional

e.e. y dylai Robyn - that Robyn should

y gallwn i basio - I could pass.

that + conditional tense = Y + (hoffwn/ dylwn/ gallwn) NOT Bod

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