Weimar

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  • Created by: AGill700
  • Created on: 02-03-16 19:40

Impacts Of WWI & How was Weimar Born?

Germany = depressed + humiliated

Army defeated

Food shortages as people survued on turnips and bread

Flu epidemic 

600,000 widows and 2 million children without dads

Industrial production at 1/3 of 1913 levels

November 9 1918 Kaiser abdicated and fled

Freidrich Ebert (leader of socialist) became leader of republic

Signed armistice with allies, disgust to Germ people

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Peoples reactions to new Republic

Opposed by right wing politicians (wanted Kaiser)

Myth developed about Kaiser satbbing Ger in back with armisitce

Opposed by left wing comms 

Argued for communist revolution like Russia '17

Free elections in 1919 - Socialist win majority and Ebert first pres of Weimar 

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Threats to Weimar Gov from Left Wing

Sparticists 1919:

comm part led by Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg set up soviets in various towns within Germany

Suppressed by Ebert and Freikorps (anti-comm ex-soldiers). Liebknecht and Luxemburg murdered

Bavarian Uprising 1919:

still an independent socialist state Kurt Eisner was assinated and so Bavarian Comms seized chance to declare soviet republic

Ebert and Freikorps crushed comms in May 1919 - 600 comms dead

Red Rising in Ruhr 1920:

further agitation leading to comms clashing with Freikorps, police and army 

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Treaty Of Versailles Effects

10% of land lost

12.5% population lost

16% coal

48% iron and steel industry

most armed forces

felt betrayed by allies - too harsh

myth of stabbing in back began - couldve fought on 

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Threats to Weimar Gov from Right Wing

people liked Kaisers dictorial style of government and wanted strong government, army

Kapp Putsch 1920:

Dr Wolfgang Kapp led uprising of 5000 Freikorps in Berlin

Thwarted when workers of Berlin called strike and bought standstill to city

1922 Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau assassinated 

1923 Putsch in Munich by Hitler:

Hitler hijacked government meeting announced he was taking over government of Bavaria with Ludendorff. 

Police rounded SA up and broke rebellion up

People didnt support Hitler who was put in jail for 9 months - gained publicity

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How did Weimar Survive 18-23

Effective gov action against Comms, Stresseman with currency reforms

Pop support - most Germans supported Republic - responded with calls for passive resistance in 23 in Ruhr, went on strike to thwart Kapp Putsch in 1920, most working class voted for Ebert and Socialists (SPD)

Weakness of opponents

comms lacked supported - never gained more than 15% of votes in Reichstag elections

right wing groups (eg nazis) seen as extremists with little support and no outstanding leaders

also army were suspicious of them

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Events contributing to 1923 crisis year?

French occupation of Ruhr:

germany stopped with reparations in 1922; 1923 Jan French and Belgian troops occupied Ruhr

Gov repsonded by calling for passive resistance ie strike, French troops killed over 100 and expelled 100000. Production ground to a halt causing currency collapse

Hyperinflation:

no goods to trade - prinitng more money to pay goods - with loads of money circulating prices and wages rocketed - paper money became almost worthless. Middle-class Germans had savings wiped out and pensions became worthless 

1923 Putsch in Munich by Hitler:

Hitler hijacked government meeting announced he was taking over government of Bavaria with Ludendorff. Police rounded SA up and broke rebellion up.People didnt support Hitler who was put in jail for 9 months - gained publicity

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