Surgery on the amydala reduces aggression in violent people
Castration reduces aggressive behaviour in violent men
Drugs chemicals in the form of drugs reduce aggression
Evaluating Biological Approach
Although these methods (surgery, castration and drugs) are sucessful in reducing aggression, they are very drastic and they have ethical concerns
We do not fully understand the part of the brain and the processes involved in aggression, so it is hard to create a treatment for problems
Drugs: slow and lower the body's response to stimuli cause drowsiness inhibit concentration cause memory loss loss of apetite
All these factors can cause someone to lose their job, have poor health or make their social relationships to crumble - could be worse than their original condition
Sport gives an opportunity for sublimation- channelling aggression into something acceptable
Freud said that competitve sport was carthatic: released pent up anger
He said displacement stops us destroying ourselves - this is transfering our aggression unto someone/thing else
But to avoid aggression on other people, it should be directed at objects- punching a cushion etc.
Evaluating Psychodynamic Approach
Little evidence supported Freud
Research shows that displacement gives the opposite effects (Berkowitz 1968)
Other research contradicts the benefit of sport on aggression. R.Arms and others (1979) compared the effects of watching high contact sport like wrestling and ice hockey with swimming events. Participants who watched wrestling and ice hockey had increased feeling of hostility while people who watched swimming didn't. Competitive sport isn't necessarily carthartic.
But it seems that aggression can be reduced by directing it to a 'safe' object
Social Learning Approach
The social learning theory and Bandura's research shows if we see a model being punished but aggressive behanviour, we are less likely to show aggression
Seeing non-aggressive role models can also reduce aggression
Baron (1977) gave ptc opportunity to shock someone. The person recieving the shock was a confederate who was pretending to be shocked. The experimental group who had seen a non-aggressive model, while the control group had not. Baron found that the group who saw a non-aggressive role model had given fewer shocks than the group who hadn't seen a model.
This supports the idea that seeing a non-aggressive role model can reduce aggression.
Evaluating Social Learning Approach
The role of punishment is hard because the adult who uses an aggressive way of punishment (hitting) is modelling aggression, which shows the child what to do to get your own way, which the child may later imitate.
Aggressive role models cannot be removed from society. The media have to blamed for showing aggressive role model but they also show non-aggressive role models.
John Murray (1980) looked into the behaviour of children after watching som TV programmes that promoted helpfulness and sharing. Results showed that helpfulness andd sharing in children increased.
Social learning can be successful in reducing aggression even though people still choose aggressive role models to imitate.