if you fix one end of a spring and move the other end from side to side, each part of the spring moves from side to side a little bit after the part before it. water waves are transverse.
if you fix one end of a spring and move the other end backwards and forwards, each part of the spring moves backwards and forwards a little bit after the part before. sound waves are longitudinal.
longitudinal waves are often drawn as fronts
the frequency is the amount of waves that pass in a second - measured in Hertz (Hz) the wave speed is how fast the wave travels (m/s)
wave speed (v (velocity)) = frequency (f) x wavelength (λ (lambda))
m/s Hz m
frequency = 1/time period
the amplitude of a wave is its maximum disturbance from the middle of the wave.
Reflection and Refraction
when a water wave hits a straight barrier, it follows the same rule as reflecting light.
the speed of a wave is effected by the depth of the water, when the water is shallower, the waves act in the same way as when light travels through a glass block. this is called refraction
when water passes through a narrow gap, they tend to spreat out from the edges.