Water Security Studies

Case Studies for A2 Geography!

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Murry-Darling Basin ~ Human, Physical Factors & Pl

  • Agriculture and industry take over 90% of the water
  • Diverting water leads to evapouration
  • Extraction is increasing by 4% each year
  • El Nino brings dry weather
  • Rainfall is continuing to decrease
  • Temperature increases causing droughts
  • Austrailian Government
  • Environmentalists and Conservationists
  • Farmers and residents
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Israel ~ Reasons & Effects

  • Demand exceeds supply
  • 'Water-loving crops' such as citrus grown
  • palasteinians have less water causing conflict
  • lots of conflict as Israel are taking more water
  • less water affects 3 religious groups (Jews, Muslims & Christians)
  • Middle Eastern peace talks due to rise in conflict
  • Damage to lakes and ecosystem
  • Citrus & Rice take too much water, Israel forced to cut back
  • Israelian farmers forced to cut back on crops
  • succesive and longer drought
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California ~ Human, Physical Factors & Water Influ

  • Lots of water used for recreational use
  • Large population increase - high demand
  • All rainfall falls in the North - scarcity in the South
  • Rain Shadow effect
  • El Nino & La Nina
  • Amount of water in the area is declining
  • 1/3 of California's water comes from Aquifers
  • 200 - 500mm rainfall per year and is only seasonal
  • 22% of water taken for domestic use, most of the rest is evapoutated
  • Lew precipitation affects their annuel water supply
  • 60% of California's water comes from Colarado River
  • Stake water project provides water for 20 million
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African Water Crisis

  • Population Increase
  • Large Debt
  • Low GNP
  • Economic Water Scarcity
  • Hungar
  • Shortage of Aid
  • Low amounts of trade
  • Physical Water Scarcity
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River Ganges ~ The River, Sources & Solutions

  • 25% of India's water supple and 20% of the population relies on it
  • Increasing levels of pollution caused by population and development
  • Urban Water - Sewage and household waste
  • Industrial Waste - Chemicals
  • Agriculture waste - Fertilisers and pesticides
  • Religious practices - Bodies thrown in the river
  • Addition of industrial treatment plants
  • Low cost sanitation facilities
  • Electric powered crematoria
  • Introduction of snapping turtles
  • Monitoring river quality
  • Educating the locals
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China ~ Demand, Impacts & Privitising

  • Unsustainable water supplies due to rapid urbanisation
  • More water needed for farming and industry
  • 5 million people affected by water shortages
  • Polluted water supplies
  • 80% of lakes infected by chemicals
  • Boar Holes cause rivers to decrease in size
  • The Yangtze river will be ecologically dead by 2010
  • Private companies have taken over charging at commerial rates
  • Sustainable Housing
  • The World bank encourages privitising water
  • Private companies require $50 billion a year to guarentee supply
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GAP Project ~ Area & Players

  • Mountainous
  • Little Rainfall
  • Small work force
  • Rivers run from mountains to neghbouring countries
  • Most water used for agriculture
  • Turk, Iraqi & Syrian Government
  • British Government
  • Kurds
  • Skansa
  • Austrian, Swiss & German companies
  • World Bank
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Israel ~ Players & Solutions

  • Religious groups
  • Syrian & Israeli Residents
  • Palastienians
  • Reduce sewage for agriculture (65%)
  • Better water treatment
  • Demand management
  • Importing 50m3 of water from Turkey
  • New piping for 25% of supplies
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GAP Project ~ Postives & Negatives

  • Provide 22% of Turkeys energy
  • Provide irrigation for 1.7 millions hectares
  • supports 9%
  • diversity of cash crops
  • Huge economic growth
  • 16,000 residents moved to resettle
  • Important structures lost
  • Rish of water-bourn diseases
  • Diverting water wll cause conflict
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California ~ Effects & Solutions

  • Water supply decreases, price increases along with shortages and droughts
  • North California fear the South will take their water
  • South California demand thier water stays the same
  • Native Americans in conflict with government
  • Pollution from factories causes toxic water and high salinity
  • Water treatment discharges chemicals itnto the river
  • FIsh migratory patterns affected - 7.5 million
  • Improve levees and increase water sotage
  • Restore ecosystems
  • Planting Calfornia-friendly plants
  • Channel storm drains preventing flooding
  • reduce agriculture from 80%
  • Smart housing developments
  • Groundwater banks
  • reusing waste water
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Murry-Darling Basin ~ Farming & Solutions

  • Drought-tolerent farming
  • Precision farming
  • Global positioning systems
  • Sustainable farming
  • Floating objects & covers
  • Shade structures
  • Chemical & Biological covers
  • Design features for storage
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African Water Crisis ~ Project Solutions

  • Toshka - An Egyptian project of diverting water from lake Nasser for 16 million people. Could cause conflict between the Nile Basin countries. As Egypt is the Niles last country, their supply can be instantly affected
  • Aswan Dam - An Egyptian project of creating a resiviour in the Nile to proved water for over 50% of the countries population. could cause debt yet lot of jobs created for construction
  • WaterAid - An international charity which aims on providing a safe water supply for areas most in need. Happening in Ethiopia. Educates the locals in sanitaton.
  • Virtual Water - A method of trading water. for example, virtual water happens in Kenya. Kenya grow flowers which need water to grow. when they trade flowers to other countries, they also trade the water to get money for it
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