Water on the land Case studies.

Case studies for water on the land.

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  • Created by: katie
  • Created on: 07-06-12 11:43

Boscastle - Aug 2004

Location

  • North Cornwall in the South West of England.
  • Small Village On Cornwall's North coast. Main economical activity is tourism.
  • 3 rivers flowing through it.
    • River valency 
    • River Jordan                                                                                                               
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Boscastle - Aug 2004

Causes

Physical

  • Rainfall of 1,400 million litres in just 2 hours.
  • wet summers.
  • steep sided valleys funnelling water towards boscastle.

Human

  • Large amount of buildings on flood plains.
  • Water can't infiltrate - too many impermeable surfaces.
  • bridge acted like a dam and stopped water getting through.
  • Large plants got swept into river and blocked the water.
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Boscastle - Aug 2004

Effects

Social

  • Stress and anxiety of local people.
  • Visitor centre destroyed (Also economical)
  • Rescue services had to mount the largest peace time rescue operation in history.
  • 4 footbridges washed away.

Economical

  • Local economy was devastated the area relies on tourism for 90% of income.
  • 50 buildings flood damaged.

Environmental

  • Mud and debris left in lower part of the village.
  • pavements and gardens destroyed.


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Boscastle - Aug 2004

Responses

Short term

  • Helicopters.
  • Rescue.
  • Evacuation.
  • Flood warnings.

Long term

  • Wider span bridge.
  • Removed lower bridge.
  • Move trees neer to river.
  • New flood defence wall.
  • Relocate defence walls.
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Bangladesh - 2004 + 1998

  • Located in Asia, Near India. - soil is very fertile.
  • Confluence of two major rivers.

Human Causes

  • Deforestation in Tibet and Nepal means less water is being soaked up so surface run off and soil erosion will increase and cause higher river levels.
  • In Dhaka and other urban areas, rapid growth of the amount of impermeable surfaces, resulting in more surface run off.

Physical Causes

  • Snow melting in the Himalayas during summer add to the amount of water flowing into rivers - made worse due to climate change.
  • Tropical cyclones cause coastal flooding due to storm surges.
  • The river Ganges is used for irrigation, increasing deposition and reducing channel capacity.
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Bangladesh - 1998

Effects 1998

Short term

  • 60% of the country was flooded.
  • Capital city Dhaka was under water for weeks.
  • Crops were lost/Contaminated.

Long term

  • Hundreds of people killed.
  • Millions were made homeless.
  • 900 bridges and 15,000 km of roads were destroyed.
  • loss of income.
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Bangladesh - 2004

Effects - 2004

Short term

  • River had risen above danger levels.
  • over-topped flood protection embankments.
  • Effected 36 million people.

Long term

  • Leaving contaminated and general destruction.
  • loss of income.
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River Tees flood control

Hard Engineering

  • Reinforced concrete walls with metal flood gates to access by people and flood gates.
  • Gabions (baskets filled with stones) to protect walls and embankments from erosion.
  • Earth embankments.
  • Straighten river to allow it to flow faster.

Soft engineering

  • Building materials approved by English heritage to remain in keeping with existing architecture.
  • Fishing platforms, street lighting and replanting to improve the environment. 
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