Water on Land

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Bangladesh and India

Causes:  Heavy rainfall - 900 mm July, Peak discharge - both rivers peaked at sametime, saturated soil ^ surface run-off, Himalayas snow melt

Primary effects: ^ 2000 deaths, 100 000 km roads X, 25 mil homeless, 44 skls X, 112 000 houses X, factories closed + livestock killed, rivers polluted with sewage and rubbish

Secondary effects: children X educ. (4000 skls affected), 100 000 diarrhoea, rice fields flooded = 10% ^ rice prices, many farmers + factory workers unemployed, water purification tablets, free seeds given to farmers, embankments temp. fixed

Immeadiate responses: many ppl not evcuate in time (bocked transport), other gov. + international charities helped, 800 temp. health centres, 5500 locations emergency shelters

Long term responses: $ 2 - 3 bil gov. rebuilding costs, UN agencies deployed team to help with rescue, charities fundraising, houses rebuilts on sitls, building raised flood shelters, deforestation reduction, dams planned, introduce flood warning systems,


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Causes: 25% ^ rainfall than usual = naturally saturated ground, Valency had small carrying capactiy (narrow and steep) therefore discharge was ^ downstream, a large amount of sediment deposited = limiting the capacity of the river

Primary effects: 75 cars + 5 caravans, several boats washed into sea, uprooted trees +debris, 0 death, sewage pipe destoryed, 58 properties affected,

Secondary effects: £20 mil insurance pay out, econ. not suffer too much, not many homeless

Immediate responses: 100 ppl rescused + airlifted with 7 helicopters, fire brigade present for a week

Long term responses: 1850 tonnes shifted out, £4.6 mil flood defence scheme, widen river north, raise car parks, trash screen to stop blockage of drainage

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Rutland Water

Background info:

  • Built in 1970s + 12 km2
  • Supply East Midlands + areas around used for reacreation and nature reserve


  • ^ economy, popular tourist destination
  • farmers lost homes because 6 km2 flooded


  • Lots of rec. activities yet 2 villages destoyed
  • ^ jobs created + educational visits


  • SSSI - areas where wildlife protected + 100s species of bird and waterfowl come in water
  • variety of habitats, lots of wildlife organisms
  • ospreys reintroduced + destroyed some habitats
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