water crisis in sub sahara africa

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  • Created by: chinwe
  • Created on: 23-05-16 13:30

Water crisis in Sub-saharan Africa

When did the crisis start?

  • from 1980-90's Africa experienced rapid population growth, poverty forced people to move into marginal lands.
  • UNEP (united nations environmental programme) estimated that nearly half of african continent will suffer from water scarcity by 2050.
  • Poor countries were unable to develop due to water stress, and economic instability hinders the development of water and sanitation programmes.

Problems today, Urban?

  • Large-scale dam (e.g- aswan dam in egypt) developments were introduced to eliveiate poverty, water insecurity, debt and encourage economic growth. However there is a disproportianate amounts of water storage are diverted to countries such as south africa and egypt. (unequal distribution and allocation of stored water)
  • Insufficient infrustructure means that water especally in the urban poor, poorly mangaged and maintained. Polltion of already scarce water supplies due to heavy infrustructure and chemical plants.
  • Bilateral agreements on transboudray water laws, such as the River Nile (10 countries share this water source) has been unsuccesfull. Due to focus on water allocation of already scarce water supplies, as oppose to focusing on development and sustainbility of water resources.
  • Better water storage ( e.g hydropower) and less water pollution can decrease the impacts of drought, e.g in kenya. Keeping economy stable.
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Water crisis in Sub-saharan Africa

How does water crisis affect agriculture?

  • more than half of african countries rely on unreliable water resources, to support industries, homes and agriculture. 
  • 13% of African countries experience drought, leading to desertification.Human activites such as deforestation, overgrazing, and unsutainable water irrigation contribute to these problems. 
  • In agricultural areas the focus need to shift from the allocation of already scarce water supplies (to supply cash crops), to reducing soil nutrient depletion. The development of soil nutrients is the most effective way to improve agricultural water sustainability.
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