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Sustaining our environment

Factors in the quality of our environment

  • Global warming
  • Ozone depletion
  • Acid rain
  • Deforestation
  • Fisheries depletion
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Air, Water and Noise pollution

Air polution is from cars which are driven on petrol and realise carbon dioxide emissions. Measures are being taken for example reducing speed limits, more people are walking and cycling places. It can also result from both incierated and dumped refuse.

Water pollution is caused by floods, sewage, industrial waste, agricultural chemicals and dirty water from landfill sites all of these kill fish and wildlife.

Noise pollution is from machinery, aircraft, traffic and indivuals. People can help reduce this by:

  • turning down steros and noisy electrical equipment
  • preventing dogs from constantly barking
  • Leaving a house key with a neigbour when you are away from for long periods if you have a house alarm
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Agenices for the environment

  • The Department of Environmental Health - They monitor levels of polltion, they follow up complaints and ensure correct action is taken, give advice on how to eradicate vermin and pests to help reduce the spread of disease
  • The Environment Agency- Take responsibility for waste regulations, puts governement environmental polices into practice, takes responsibility for controlling industrial pollution and water management
  • The Department of Environment, Transport and Regions (DETR) - Works with local and national agencies to improve air quality.
  • The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affaris (DEFRA) - Air pollution information service
  • Friends of the Earth- Its concern is the state of the environment and the threats to it.
  • Greenpeace - Indepentdent, global campaigning organisation that uses non- violent meausures to highlight global environmental problems and their causes
  • Environmental Protection UK - Brings people together to promote a balanced and innovative approach to understanding and solving environmental problems
  • The Soil Association -  Promotes organic farming and reduce the use of pesticides and insecticides in the production of food
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Management and conservation of energy in the home

Purchasing and using electricity

  • Buy electricity from the greenest energy supplier
  • Switch off lights
  • Boil only the amount of water you need
  • Use cooler washing loads
  • Replace ordinary light bulbs with energy -efficient ones
  • Buy 'A' rated appliances as these are the most energy efficient
  • Dont leave TV's on standby
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Management and conservation of energy in the home

Preparing, making and cooking food

  • Shop online to cut down on traffic pollution, shopping locally also saves on fuel costs and buying locally supports your local economy
  • Become a 'greener' cook. Recycle food to make new dishes
  • Choose the right pan size for cooking so it fits the ring, cut food into smaller chunks and put lids on pans. the food will cook quicker and use less fuel
  • Make your own meals which can be doubled up on quantities and freeze the other half for a later date
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Management and conservation of energy in the home


  • Shower instead of having a bath.
  • When cleaning teeth do not leave the tap on
  • Fitting a water 'hippo' bag into the toilett saves up to 3 litres of water with every flush
  • Hot water tanks should be lagged
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Management and conservation of energy in the home


  • Use a timer and only heat the home when there
  • Reduce the heating
  • Use thermostatic controls on raditor valves as they reduce heating bills
  • Use easy insulation methods - thick lined curtains etc
  • Thick carpets and underlay will also reduce draughts through floorboards
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The Welfare State

Five Giants

  • WANT - Many people were living in poverty through no fault of their own because they were sick, unemployed or widowed. National insurance was introduced providing those with money who had none. 
  • DISEASE- Medical insurance had been introduced, but there was no free medicine and people couldnt afford to go to the doctors. The NHS  gave every british citizen with free medical, dental and optical services.
  • IGNORANCE - Most children left school at 14 or before, welfare reform made education free and compulsory from 5 to 15 years . It provided meals, milk and medical services at every schools.
  • SQUALOR - Many people lived in poor housing. The war had devasted many towns and cities. Social housing was introduced and decent homes were available for all.
  • IDLENESS - After the war there was a very high employment rate. Industries were nationalised to help kepp full employment
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Statutory provision

The NHS core principles are :

  • It meets the needs of everyone
  • It is free at the point of need
  • It is based on a patients clinical need and not their ability to pay
  • Department of Health - This government department funds, drects and supports the NHS
  • Primary care trusts (PCTs) - Local health organisations which manage the health services in a local area: hospitals, doctors, dentists and mental health services.
  • Strategic health authorities (SHAs) - Have overall responsibility for improving the health services in their local area. They make sure local health services are of a high quality and are performing well.
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Primary Care

This is provided by health professionals at the first or primary stage of health care. The people you see first of all.

  • GPs
  • NHS walk-in centres
  • NHS direct
  • Dentists
  • Opticians
  • Pharmacists
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Secondary Care

This is provided if a health conditions further treatment. Who you are referred too.

  • Emergency and urgent care
  • Acute trusts
  • NHS trusts and foundation trusts
  • Ambulance trusts
  • Care trusts
  • Mental health trusts
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Social services are a wide range of support and care services which look after our health and welfare- 

  • Children or families under stress
  • People with disabilities
  • People with emotional or psychological difficulties
  • People with financial or housing problems
  • The elderly who need help with daily living activities
  • Personal care eg help with bathing
  • Domestic care eg Garden maintenance,cooking and cleaning
  • Social support and surveillance eg social events
  • Community nursing care eg change dressing
  • Day services eg Elderly go to socialise
  • Respite care eg individuals go for short term gives carer a break
  • Residential care eg those who cant live independently
  • Palliative and supportive care eg serious long term illness people
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Social Workers

Social workers work with adults and children within the community, giving support and advice to help solve problems.

They provide 2 services:

  • Adult services - working with people with mental health problems or learning difficulties. They work with offenders in the community and support them to find work. They assist people with HIV/AIDS and work with older people in their homes to help to solve problems with their care package, health, housing or benefits.
  • Children and young people services - Providing help and advice to keep families together. Social workers manage the adoption and foster care processes. They provide support to young people leaving care and help young offenders. They help children who have problems at school or are facing difficulties due to issues at home.
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Care trusts are set up when the NHS and local authorities agree to work together. they deal both in health and social care.

Mental health trusts provide health and social care services for people with mental health problems. This may include conselling, general health screening etc

Children's trusts bring together all services for children and young people in an area. Children's trusts aim to listen to children and focus on improving child health care provisions.

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Access to social care services

Self-referral is where a person chooses to ask for help.

Proffesional referral is where you are referred on to someone offereing more specialist care.

Third-party referral is where an individual is put in conatct with a service by a friend, family or neigbour.

Assesment results in a care plan. This is a written document that outlines how the needs of an individual are to be met. Many people have complex needs that may result in multidisciplinary care.

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Some aspects of the health services are not free. Individuals may have to pay for some services or they may just prefer to do so.

  • Private medical insurance
  • Dental Services
  • Optical services
  • Fertility treatment - (IVF)
  • Chiropodists- Foot and lower limb treatments
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Health screening - prostate and testicular cancer, osteoporosis and glaucoma
  • Care homes - Residential care homes, Nursing homes
  • Social care - Home care services, Home help, Adaptions to the home, Meals, Recreational and occupational activities
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These organisations are non-stautory bodies, set up and run by their members rather than the government, they....

  • providing a service for individuals in need
  • identifying unmet needs
  • meeting minority needs
  • educating the public
  • raising funds
  • acting as a pressure group

Types of voluntary organsations:

The samaritans, Womens shelters, Gingerbread groups, Help the aged and Age concern, The womens royal voluntary service (WRVS) , The Salvation Army, Shelter, Alcoholics Anonymous, Drug dependency groups, Relate, The Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB)

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