Background: Durning Richards absence on crusade, he left Hubert Walter in the role of Cheif Justiciar.
- Innovation was spurred by Walter's duty to provide the King with sufficient funding for ransoms and wars.
- Hubert Walter did so by developing the aspects of goverment and administration which he had inherited from Henry II's reign, therefore Walter was not entirley creative but he was succesfull in improving the current system to be more resorceful.
Walter forced to devise a creative plan to improve fincace becuase of the intial finacial burdens caused by Richard's captivity:
- Taken captive by Leopald V, Duke of Austria, demanded ransom of £150,000 marks
Finacial pressures then became a long term situation:
- Richard wanted to reconquer lands of Phillip.
- Increased size of army for the fighting season.
However, Hubert was succesfull in providing 1,100,000 silver marks between 1194-1196
- Used existing established sources: Scutage & General tax
- But also innovative sources of funding such as Great Caracage ( +£1000) & 25% movable goods tax
- Gillingham commends Walters creativity by recognising the growth in English Economy
WALTER USED A COMBONATION OF EXISTING PRACTICES (USED CORRECTLY) AND INNOVATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCE.
- With Walters alterations to some types of taxation he needed to enhance the adminisatration of income in order maximise revenue collection.
The Exchequer: Walter used the Excheuqer (existing aspect of finacial administration) but he did develop this---> devised two seperate exchequers into ransoms and Jewish debts.Walter imporved the Exchequer system
Central Record of Letters: Kept a close track on feudal debts and exemptions by keeping record of all letters sent regarding finance and property.
WALTER DID NOT INVENT BUT CREATIVELY DEVELOPED AND IMPROVED
Positions within the administration system were not specialised, government officers were overworked.
Walter's INNOVATIONS: NOT the typical response of creating more royal officials
Role of Knights: Gave capable laymen many of the duties of a sheriffs.
- Formed the jury of the Grand assize.
- Given authority to verify excuses of absence to itinerent justices.
- Now (willingly) served equal imprtance in admin & military of the country.
- TURNER: Walter had created a 'finely tuned machine' of an administrative system.
WALTER WAS VERY INNOVATOVE REGARDING ADMINISTRATION AS HE HAD INGHERITED A WEAK ONE- NEED FOR CHANGE
Walter ensured the King's authoirty remained as land and justice continued to be dealt with under Richards name.
FORREST ASSIZE ( OLD) : -re-imposed King's control over forrrest offences
EDICTUM REGIUM 1195:
- Walter issued a proclomation to keep peace.
- All men over 15 take an oath before local Kinghts to keep peace-denounced those that did not.
- led to crime decrease on local lands
OFFICE OF CORONOR: WARREN: 'Piece of administrative tidying'
- Once again specilised the role of Knights-could carry out death investigations of shire.
WALTER RESPECTED THE WORKINGS OF ENGLISH JUSTICE MADE SOME CREATIVE IMPROVMENTS TO AN ESTABLISHED SYSTEM.
WALTERS CREATIVITY IN OFFICE CAUSED A TURNING POINT TO ENGLANDS ADMINISTRATION AND GOVERNMENT.
- Not blinded by personal ambition
- CARPENTER 'Astute politician and brilliant administrator'
WAS NOT ENTIRLEY CREATIVE/INNOVATIVE AS HE USED INHERITED ASPECTS OF CURRETN GOVERNMENT AS A SPRINGBOARD FOR IMPROVMENT/DEVELOPMENT. IN HIS TIME HE MADE A NUMBER OF RECOGNISABLE IMPOROMNETS TO ENGLISH GOVERNMENT